Increases the likelihood that you will be helped in

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increases the likelihood that you will be helped in return Rewards of Helping : Helping Others to Help Oneself - any behavior, including helping has advantages and disadvantages. - more likley to help when the potential rewards of helping seem high relative to potential costs - Arousal: Cost-Reward Model - what are the costs and rewards associated with helping? - making someone happy (R) - more positive view of self (R) - your own life (C) - may be late (C) - both emotional and cognitive factors involved Costs of Helping or of Not Helping - helping has its costs as well as its rewards - helping can also be more sustained and deliberate - courageous resistance - eg. people who hid Jews during the Holocaust - helping can have negative health effects of involves constant and exhausting demands - eg. taking care of a terminally ill person - watching them suffer... very little you get in return for all the resources you invest in care giving. hence many caregivers develop depression, etc Altruism or Egoism: The Great Debate - is helping motivated by altruistic or egoistic concerns? - Altruistic: motivated by the desire to increase another’s welfare - Egoistic : motivated by the desire to increase one’s own welfare - Batson: the motivation behind some helpful actions is truly altruistic 215: March 22nd, 2011
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- first of all you need to perceive that someone needs help - then either adopted the persons perspective or not - ex. as you see car stuck on road you think “poor guy” or “uch there will be a traffic jam this is so annoying”. If you take their side you have empathy vs distress. Once you take their side you lessen your distress. - hard to come up with a study that will separate these motives Telling the Difference Between Egoistic and Altruistic Motives - how easy is it to escape from a helping situation? - if your reason for helping is because the distress annoys you, then you will leave - if your motive is empathy then you will try to help and you would feel worse if you left - if egoistic motive, helping should decline when escape from the situation is easy - if alturistic motive, help is given regardless of ease of escape Batson et al (1981) - P is paired with a confederate Elaine - “randomly” placed in observer position - watch Elaine receive shocks as she works - manipulated: describe Elaine as very similar to you (in order to motivate empathic response) - Would P be willing to take Elaine’s place? - varied empathy and difficulty to escape - 1/2 told E’s personal values were similar to P; 1/2 told quite different - 1/2 P told they could leave early; 1/2 told had to stay - Results: - in the middle, Elaine wants to stop so the experimenter asks if you would switch?
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