05 06 07 Electrophysiology of Neurons and Excitable Cells

B greater permeability of the cell membrane to k than

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(b) Greater permeability of the cell membrane to K+ than Na+ causes Vm to be closer to EK than ENa (c) At a steady state, Na+ and K+ fluxes through ion channels are balanced by Na/K-ATPase
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K+ Homeostasis in Inner Ear (From: Physiology 21: 336-345, 2006)
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High Osmolarity in Renal Medulla of the Kidney for Production of Concentrated Urine
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Graded Potential and Action Potentials
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Terms for Describing Changes in Membrane Potential Depolariztion = More positive than resting potential Hyperpolarization = More negative than resting potential Overshoot = More positive than zero mV Repolarization = Return to resting membrane (after depolarization)
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Localized Opening of Na+ Channels Leads to Localized Depolarizing Graded Potentials Opening of Na+ channels leads to depolarization, because ENa is more positive than Vm
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Characteristics of Graded Potentials (a) Graded potentials can be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing (b) Graded potentials can vary in size as a function of stimulus strength (c) Graded potentials are conducted decrementally – decrease in size with distance
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Decremental Conduction is Caused by Leakage of Charge Through Ion Channels Stronger Depolarization Weaker Depolarization
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Action Potentials are All-or-None
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Ionic Basis of Action Potential
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Voltage-Dependencies of Na+ and K+ Channels Na+ channels undergo
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