To determine stability of living system persistence

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To determine stability of living system… persistence, constancy, and resilience f) Different modes of comparison – rain forest = more persistent compared to a prairie, but lower resilience. 22. SUCCESSION a) Pioneer species = first to move in (ex. lichen, moss, etc.) primary succession b) Secondary succession i.e. forest fire burns down all the plants but keeps the soil in place. c) Plant species must change in a succession sequence to make way for new organisms and maintain biodiversity in a system 23. INTERACTIONS OF ORGANISMS a) Competition leads to… extinction, evolution, or migration b) Interspecific competition = species compete for same resources c) Predator techniques = ambush, pursuit, camouflage, chemical warfare d) Prey defenses = mimicry (Viceroy butterfly copies Monarch), behavioral strategies (killdeer faking a broken wing to lead predators away from nest), warning coloration (poison dart frog), etc… e) Parasitism parasite gains, host always is hurt, but doesn’t die (usually) f) Most parasites small with some means of attaching to host (i.e. teeth, suckers) g) Mutualism i.e. roots make sugars for fungi, fungi fix nitrogen for plants, pollination Commensalism i.e. anemone protects clownfish, epiphytes grow on tall trees, redwood sorrel grows in trees’ shade 24. MARINE BIODIVERSITY a) Why protect marine biodiversity? Intrinsic and instrumental values use value (tangible benefits), existence (knowing it exists is good), aesthetic, bequest; for scientific research
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b) Human impacts i.e. habitat destruction, overfishing, invasive species, (thermal) pollution c) Invasive species effects = increased competition for resources, reduce biodiversity d) Marine reserves (no human activity allowed there), integrated coastal management (sustainably use coasts), reduce by catch, individual transfer quotas (each person allowed set % of catch, can be bought/sold)
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