Members rationalize any resistance to assumptions

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members rationalize any resistance to assumptions made (no matter how strongly evidence may contradict their assumptions, members behave so as to reinforce those assumptions continually) Peer Pressure members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts abt any of group’s shared views, or who question validity of arguments supporting the alternative favoured by the majority Minimized Doubts members who have doubts / hold differing POVs seek to avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus by keeping silent, or even minimizing to themselves importance of their doubts Illusion of Unanimity if someone doesn’t speak, it’s assumed that he is in full accord (abstention is viewed as a “yes” vote) How to Minimize Groupthink? Encourage group leaders to play an impartial role. Leader should actively seek input from all members & avoid expressing his own opinions (especially in early stages of deliberation) Appoint 1 group member to play role of devil’s advocate (to challenge the majority position & offer divergent perspectives) Stimulate active discussion of diverse alternatives (to encourage dissenting views / objective evaluations) *BUT, not all groupthink symptoms harm decision-making (some +vely associated w/ team performance) Groupshift group shift = phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual group members become exaggerated b/c of interactions of the group - discussion leads to significant shift in positions of members toward a more extreme position in the direction which they were already leaning before the discussion → conservative types become more cautious, aggressive types assume more risk Why? - discussion creates familiarization among members → become more bold & daring - our society values risk → group discussion motivates members to show they’re willing to take risks, like their peers - group diffuses responsibility (if decision fails, no one member can be held wholly responsible) Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting Groups = typical groups, where members interact w/ each other face to face - rely on verbal & nonverbal interaction to communicate
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P ART 4: S HARING THE O RGANIZATIONAL V ISION - But, often censor themselves & pressure members toward conformity of opinion Brainstorming = idea-generation process that specifically encourages any & all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives - group of 6-12 ppl “free wheel” as many alternatives as they can, and record them - electronic brainstorming: ppl interact on computers to generate ideas - but NOT always the best way… e.g. China disliked it Nominal Group Technique = group decision-making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion - nominal: restricts discussion / interpersonal comm’n during the process - advantage: does NOT restrict independent thinking Team members receive description of problem.
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