DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

The two main schools of diffusionism were the german

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The two main schools of diffusionism were the German-Austrian and the British. The German-Austrian diffusionists did not believe that all culture originated in Egypt and instead theorized that diffusion emanated from a number of different cultural complexes. Question 19 of 33
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The primary spokesmen for the British school of diffusionism were W.H.R. Rivers , G. Elliot Smith and William J. Perry. An invention is something new that is created. Invented cultural traits may be new things or ideas. It is rare for inventions to be based on entirely new principles, functions, and forms. Most often, old principles are applied to new functions and/or forms. Inventions may also result from stimulus diffusion. Early adopters of innovations tend to be highly educated, upwardly mobile people. An innovation starts with an innovator, often a single individual with a new idea. ("New" here means unknown to the culture, even if the idea is very old.) After its conception, an innovation spreads slowly at first - usually through the work of change agents, who actively promote it - then picks up speed as more and more people adopt it. Cultural shock is the feelings of disorientation and confusion we experience when we go into a society radically different from our own. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to evaluate (usually negatively) the customs of other groups according to our standards, not theirs. The opposite--Cultural relativism --is evaluating other societies according to their standards, not ours. It says, in effect, that other people have a "right" to their own cultural heritage. An Etic perspective is a description of a behavior in terms familiar to the observer (and generally for the purpose of facilitation comparative research and making universal claims), rather than in terms of the actor. Etic is the opposite of Emic. Emic perspective: the "insider's" or "native's" interpretation of or "reasons" for his or her customs/beliefs. What things mean to the members of a society. Etic perspective: the external researcher's interpretation of the same customs/beliefs. What things mean from an analytical, anthropological perspective. The anthropologist usually takes both emic and etic interpretations into account when analyzing human society (depending on the project.) These words come from the linguistic terms "phonetic" and "phonemic." Emic and Etic are terms used by some in the social sciences and the behavioral sciences to refer to two different kinds of data concerning human behavior. An "emic" account of behavior is a description of behavior in terms meaningful (consciously or unconsciously) to the actor. An "etic" account is a description of a behavior in terms familiar to the observer. Scientists interested in the local construction of meaning, and local rules for behavior, will rely on emic accounts.
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