Fea was outspoken in his support of this Romes first scientific restorationOne

Fea was outspoken in his support of this romes first

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direction of the work passed to Valadier, who finished it in 1824. Fea was outspoken in his support of this, Rome’s first scientific restoration.“One will be also be able to see its true ancient form while distinguishing the ancient from the modern,” Fea assured. Unlike the technique of “reintegration” of eighteenth-century practice, the nineteenth-century replacement parts for the Arch of Titus deliberately lack the touches of individual artistic virtuosity that Piranesi or Cavaceppi would have added.Valadier tells us in his publication of 1822 that this was an operation “to recompose the pieces as they had been soundly constructed originally, an operation that is called restoration, not building.” In the early nineteenth century in Rome, restoration was codified as a scientific retrieval of a precise historical image disencumbered of accretions.This shift of restoration theory is exemplified by the second and radically different buttress added to the western edge of the Colosseum in 1822. Once Valadier finished with the Arch of Titus, Pius VII sent him on to the Colosseum. Stern’s earlier buttress was by then seen as “disagreeable to the eye,” the regrettably dull result of a structural emergency and limited finances. So Valadier’s western buttress features an open series of arches meticulously modeled upon the original first-century design.These are stacked up in a diminishing series against the damaged edge.Although constructed of brick, the bases, capitals, and cornices are made of travertine like the originals.When this part of the construction was finished in 1829, all the brickwork was stuccoed over.“We have faithfully imitated the ancient design and, having given it a patina all over imitating the antique, it seems entirely built of travertine.” Pius VII himself said:“If each of our predecessors had added just a single arch to the Colosseum, by now it would have been returned to its original form.”The idea of rebuilding the Colosseum soon became a reality. In the 1840s, Luigi 170 the architecture of modern italy
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the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900 3.21 Raffaele Stern, eastern (distant) buttress of the Colosseum, Rome, 1804–6; Giuseppe Valadier, western buttress, 1822–29; Raffaele Stern, then Giuseppe Valadier, restoration of the Arch of Titus, 1818–24
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Canina, who had written his dissertation on the amphitheater, began rebuilding the missing chunks of the inner rings on the south, to the point of replicating the ancient brick patterns. The new theory of restoration was tested in the debate over the Church of San Paolo fuori le mura in Rome. On the night of 15 July 1823, a fire devastated the nave of the early Christian basilica. The Church of Saint Paul was, like Saint Peter’s and Saint John’s, originally built by Emperor Constantine; it was rebuilt in the fourth century and continually added to over the centuries. Now, seventeen of the nave’s forty-two marble columns had fallen, bringing down with them a quarter of the church’s fabled fresco cycle.The great apse and its mosaics were undamaged.When Pope Leo XII was elected later in the summer, he took the matter of San Paolo in hand, opening an international fund-raising campaign.
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  • Spring '17
  • Archt. De Veyra

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