Designated as the swedish 1630 1635 and the french

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designated as the Swedish (1630-1635) and the French (1635-1648) because these two countries led successive and ultimately successful anti-Habsburg coalitions. By 1648 the Dutch Republic had replaced Spain as the leading maritime state and Bourbon France had become the dominant European land power.
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What were the advantages that the “West” – Western Europe had or acquired that helped position it for growth and development beyond some other areas or neighbors. Physical Geography, Trade, Education, Language, exchange of ideas and technology, crops and livestock. What were the 3 R’s that facilitated the transition from the medieval to the modern world first in the West? Explain what each was and what each did/created that moved us from the old way of thinking to the new way of thinking, Medieval to Modern thinking/living. Answer: The Age of Discovery, seen from the European point of view, introduced major economic changes. The Columbian exchange resulted in Europe adopting new crops, as well as shaking up traditional cultural ideas and practices. The commercial revolution continued, with Europeans developing mercantilism and European imports of luxury goods (notably spices and fine cloth) from eastern and southern Asia switching from crossing Islamic territory in the present-day Middle East to passing the Cape of Good Hope. Spain proved adept at plundering the gold and silver of the Americas, but incompetent at converting its new wealth into vibrant domestic economy, and declined as an economic power. The centers of commerce and manufactures shifted definitely from the Mediterranean to the centers of shipping and colonization on the western Atlantic coastal fringe: Economic activity went into a relative decline in the Italian peninsula and in the Ottoman Empire, but to the advantage of Portugal, Spain, France, the Dutch Republic and England/Britain. In eastern Europe, Russia suppressed the Tatar slave-trade, expanded commerce in luxury furs from Siberia and rivalled the Scandinavian and German states in the Baltic. “Colonial goods” like sugar and tobacco
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from the Americas came to play a role in the European economy. Meanwhile, changes in financial practice (especially in the Netherlands and in England), the second agricultural revolution in Britain and technological innovations in France, Prussia and England not only promoted economic changes and expansion in themselves, but also fostered the beginnings of the industrial revolution. Absolutism examples in Russia and France? How could Absolutism be viewed as a reform over the old systems in Russia and France? Compare and contrast the reforms and achievements of Peter I of Russia and Louis XIV of France. Why is one called “Great” and the other the “Sun King”? What were their tactics in establishing absolute Monarchy?
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