HISTORY 2055 – Chapter 4 – Chapter 614:08Got loans from Europe.3. Chaplains:They ministered to the troops & preached to them on Sundays.Preached to them before battle, administered them when they were dying.Used Chaplains to use religious motivation To frame this war as a battle between good & evil.Said they were like Israel: That soldiers in this war were like God’s chosen people.4. Fast & Thanksgiving Days:Congress proclaimed a day of fasting:Typically on a Thursday in the Spring.People would go to their religious house (regardless of what religion they were) and congress gave a sermon:Hoped this would improve enlistment rates, morale, etc.Key Battles:1. Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775):British won, they took the hill.But they took it at HUGE loss.This signaled to Americans that the British will stop at nothing to suppress this rebellion:British will lose THOUSANDS of their own soldiers in order to suppress the Americans.2. Trenton (December 26, 1776):On Christmas night, Washington & soldiers quietly rode across the river to Trenton, NJ.In the morning, British woke up to find the Americans all around them; SURPRISE ATTACK.Significance:It raised American morale.Enough people reenlisted to keep the army going. 3. Saratoga (September 19 – October 7, 1777):
HISTORY 2055 – Chapter 4 – Chapter 614:08A siege.Continental Army won this war.Significance:French had been supporting the USA with money; France & Great Britain hated each other.Americans needed a NAVY to defeat the British.French sent the Americans their navy France enters the war.WITHOUT the French in the war, it’s unlikely that the US would’ve won this war.4. Yorktown (1781):Key to Victory:French sent their navy to block the British in so they couldn’t load up their boats & retreat.British are forced to surrender.War is declared a VICTORY for the US.Washington declared the war victory as “almost a miracle.”Why the British Lost:1. British Army spread itself too thin in North America.2. Failed to mobilize loyalists early in the war.3. General Howe extremely cautious in the early going.4. France entered the war:BIGGEST factor in the British losing.Don’t think US could’ve won their independence without France’s support.5. Discounted the widespread scope of the rebellion (thought it was primarily in New England).
HISTORY 2055 – Chapter 4 – Chapter 614:086. Tried to direct war from across the ocean with no commander in chief in America.Treaty of Paris:1783 – Treaty of Paris is signed.Highlights of Treaty of Paris:1. United States A sovereign state.2. Established boundaries of US to Mississippi River.3. Fishing rights off Canadian coast.4. Recognized Lawfulness of Debts:Americans that owed debts to British merchants still had to pay them back.5. Return confiscated property of Loyalists.6. Return of prisoners of war.7. Mutual navigation rights on Mississippi.