WEB Du BoisU.S. writer, sociologist, and political activist; important figure in the movement for equality for black Americans;scholar and activist. Progressive who believed that investigation, exposure, and education, would lead to solutions for social problems.Understood necessity of political action. Led Niagara Movement which sought to reinvigorate the abolitionist tradition. Helped found NAACP.Lusitania 1915British ocean liner sunk by German submarine causing the death of 124 Americans. Outraged American public opinion and strengthened the idea that the US must prepare forentry into war.The Lusitania was torpedoed because the Germans suspected it of carrying war paraphernalia, even though it was a passenger liner. America was outraged because there were 128 American passengers on board. Zimmermann TelegramGerman message intercepted and made public, calling for Mexico to join in coming war against US and promised to help it recover territory lost in the Mexican War of 1846.The timing of this telegram is important. When the US government found out about it, they didn’t reveal it to the public. They waited a few months until American outrage would be greater. Wilson’s “Fourteen Points,” 1918Wilson’sattempt at assuring citizens that the war was being fought for a just cause.List of American war aims.Among key principles: self-determination for all nations, freedom of the seas, free trade, open diplomacy, readjustment of colonial claims with colonized people given “equal weight” in deciding their futures, creation of “general association of nations” to preserve the peace (establishment of a league of nations)Espionage Act 1917prohibited spying and interfering with the draft as well as “false statements” that might impede military success.Eugene V. Debs convicted, sentenced to prison after giving antiwar speech (1919)Sedition Act 1918made it a crime to make spoken or printed statements that intended to cast “contempt, scorn, or disrepute” on the “form of government” or that advocated interference with the war effortEugene V. DebsSocialist candidate in 1912 presidential election along with Taft, Roosevelt and Wilson. Convicted for a speech condemning the war under the Espionage Act in 1919.Schenck v. US (1919)Charles T. Schenck convicted for distributing anti-war leaflets. Court states first amendment did not prevent Congress from prohibiting speech that presented a clear and present dangerof inspiring illegal actionsschenck was the general secretary of the Socialist Party of the United States.