It is therefore advisable to design the checklist to

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consult the checklist frequently. It is therefore advisable to design the checklist to not be longer than a single page [Gilb and Graham 1993] . In addition, questions that are formulated altogether too generically or abstractly can make it more difficult to use the checklist. For example, the question “Is the requirement formulated appropriately?” can lead to a multitude of different answers, depending on what the auditor considers an appropriately formulated requirement. The questions therefore ought to be as precise as possible. 7.6 Requirements Negotiation To negotiate the requirements of a system to be developed, it is necessary to identify conflicts and to resolve those conflicts. This is done by means of systematic conflict management. The conflict management in require- ments engineering comprises the following four tasks: Four tasks of conflict management Conflict identification Conflict analysis Conflict resolution Documentation of the conflict resolution These four tasks are explained in the following sections.
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7.6 Requirements Negotiation 105 7.6.1 Conflict Identification Conflicts can arise during all requirements engineering activities. For example, different stakeholders can utter contradicting requirements dur- ing elicitation. Conflict identification in all requirements engineering activities Conflicts between requirements and conflicts between stakeholders are often not obvious due to different reasons. During the entire require- ments engineering process, the requirements engineer should pay atten- tion to potential conflicts so that they can be identified, analyzed, and resolved early on. 7.6.2 Conflict Analysis Determining the conflict type During conflict analysis, the reason for an identified conflict must be determined. According to [Moore 2003] , different types of conflicts exist. Subject conflict A subject conflict between two or more stakeholders is characterized by a deficit of information, by false information, or by different interpre- tations of some information. For example, take the following requirement: “R131: The reaction time of the planned system shall not exceed one second”. A subject conflict between two stakeholders with regard to this requirement can arise from the fact that one stakeholder considers a reac- tion time of 1 second to be too slow while another stakeholder does not believe that a reaction time of 1 second is feasibly implementable (i.e., it is too short). Conflict of interest A conflict of interest between two or more stakeholders is character- ized by subjectively or objectively different interests or goals of stakehold- ers. A conflict of interest between two or more stakeholders can arise, for instance, when one stakeholder primarily focuses on keeping the costs of the planned system at a minimum while another stakeholder primarily desires a high level of quality. A conflict of interest between these two stakeholders arises when the first stakeholder rejects a requirement due to estimated costs and the second stakeholder insists on implementing it due to quality reasons.
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