main mechanisms responsible for UTIs are colonization with ascending spread, hematogenous spred, and periurogenital spread (Brusch, 2016). Distinguishing between complicated and uncomplicated infections is important in being able to correctly treat the infection. Complicate UTIs are due to a urinary tract that is not structurally normal. An uncomplicated UTI is a structurally normal urinary tract. Whether it is complicated or uncomplicated urine is often cloudy and malodorous. Dysuria, urinary frequency, and urgency are seen in both but fever, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the costovertebral areas are suggestive of pyelonephritis. Diagnosis of UTIs that are uncomplicated are usually done by analyzing the mainstream urine and blood count. Complicated UTIs require, in addition to urinalysis and blood counts, pelvic ultrasounds, intravenous pyelogram, and cystoscopy.
Brusch, J. L. (2016). Cystitis in females. Medscape . Retrieved from Najar, M., Saldanha, C., & Banday, K. (2009). Approach to urinary tract infections. Approach to urinary tract infections, 19 (4), 129-139. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
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- urinary tract infections, urinary tract infection, urinary tract