Much poor earn compared to wealthiest income

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much poor earn compared to wealthiest - Income inequality measured by: comparing income of different strata, Gini coefficient (comparing more equal societies with unequal ones) - Income inequality important because it forces confrontation of injustice, constrains dev’t, shows poverty can be eliminated through growth and greater equality in the distribution of income - Income inequality exists because of colonial rule, neo-colonial economic relations, limitations of late industrialization processes, absence of social safety nets, regressive taxation Defining Poverty and Dev’t - WB absolute (US $1.25), moderate (US $2) - 1.4 billion live in absolute poverty - Poverty not just about income; it also has social, political, psychological and moral - Dudley sears asked what the conditions for the realization of human potential are, Dennis Goulet said development as life nourishment, Amartya Sen said poverty is un-freedom - HDI: composite measure of 3 equally weighted factos: life expectancy, education and Standard of living Global Ethics and International Dev’t - Elimination of poverty not seen as universal obligation - Do our moral obligation extend beyond family, fellow citizens - Welfare state in 20 th century north: due to moral, practical, authoritarian reasons, emergence of international dev’t, no emergence of global welfare institutions - Global redistributive justice (global ethics): cosmopolitanism (all human groups belong to a single community), communitarianism (connection between individuals and communities—moral obligation to it), Libertarianism (minimize force, emphasize freedom and voluntary association) Cosmopolitan Arguments for Global Redistribution - Justice owed to all people regardless of national borders - Common values apply across humanity - Responsibility towards all humanity - Types: consequential ethic, contractarian ethic, right-based ethic Communitarianism arguments against - Nationalist approach - Specific rights and duties nation based and don’t cross borders
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- Global redistribution is pursued in one’s own interest without consideration of any important moral obligation Libertarianism arguments against - Foundation of Neo-Liberalism - Individual right to private property, freedom and non-interference - Opposes obligatory global redistribution, whether within one country or among countries Arguments against Global redistributive Justice - UN promotes universal human rights and duty to protect and assist people everywhere - Millennium dev’t goals - All human life is of equal worth - .7% GNP to assistance - NGO’s charitable or duty? Ethical Behaviour and Dev’t Practitioners - Responsibilities of researchers and practitioners in the pursuit of dev’t - Permanent self-critique and evaluation of one’s actions and their effects - Power and positionality - Lifestyle, dev’t tourism, volunteerism Chapter 2—Imperialism European Expansion and Conquest - 16 th c. Americas discovered - Industrial Revolution: economic motives linked to this caused imperialism
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