o I love dogs such as corgis that eat a lot of food A Very Short Predicate

O i love dogs such as corgis that eat a lot of food a

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o“I love dogs, such as corgis, that eat a lot of food.”A Very Short Predicate Falls Between, Shifting a Very Long Modifier Back.oRight: “A new CEOhas been hired who will transform. . . “oWrong: “A new CEOwho will transform. . . has been hired.”The Modifier is Part of a Series of Parallel Modifiers, One of Which Touches the Noun.o“In heraldry, the term “tincture” refers to a coloremblazoned on a coat of armsand labeled with a with a special French word.”Absolute Phrases (touch rule does not apply): Composed of a noun + a noun modifier.These phrases do not modify what they touch; rather, they modify the main clause in some way.o“His headheld high, Owen walked out of the store.”o“Owen walked out of the store, his headheld high.”Do not use WHICH when a Absolute Phrase will work.oWrong: “Scientists detected high levels of radiation at certain crash sites around the world, which suggests. . . “ (i.e,. WHICH modifies “world”)oRight: “Scientists detected high levels of radiation at certain crash sites around the world, results that suggest. . . “You may use an “–ING” form as an alternative.oWrong: “Scientists detected high levels of radiation at certain crash sites around the world, AND THIS suggests. . . “5If you don’t understand why I wrote this rule like this, you need to study harder!9
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oRight: “Scientists detected high levels of radiation at certain crash sites around the world, suggesting that. . . ***Modifying Nouns with Relative Pronouns(WHICH, THAT, WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHERE, WHEN)WHO and WHOM must modify people. WHICH must modify things.THAT cannot modify people.oWrong: “The scientists THAT made the discovery were rewarded.”oRight: “The scientists WHO made the discovery were rewarded.”WHOSE can modify either people or things.oRight: “ . . . the town WHOSE water supply was contaminated.”WHERE can modify a physical place, but not a metaphorical place.oWrong: “We had an arrangement WHERE he cooked and I cleaned.”oRight: “We had an arrangement IN WHICH he cooked and I cleaned.”WHEN or IN WHICH can be used to modify an event or period of time.Essential vs. Non-Essential Noun ModifiersUse of CommasoPut commasbetween non-essential modifiers and their nouns.oDo notput commas between essential modifiers and their nouns.WHICH vs. THAToUse WHICH (with commas) if the modifier is non-essential.oUse THAT (and no commas) if the modifier is essential.Subgroup Modifiers: Used to describe a part of a larger group.Three rights ways:o“This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME only recently discovered.”o“This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH WERE only recently discovered.”o[“This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH THEM only recently discovered.”] [NEED TO FIX THIS BULLET (DOESN’T SEEM RIGHT), BUTI SOLD MY BOOK!]Three wrong ways:o“This model explains all known subatomic particles, OF WHICH SOME WERE only
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