Increasing of leukocytes number is classified as

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Increasing of leukocytes number is classified as leukocytosis, decreas- ing - as leukocytopenia. Leukocytosis Physiological condition', new bom, digestive process (after taking food, rich of protein), physical exercise, pregnancy, and taking some medi- cine (hormones).
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Clinical Blood Analysis 411 Pathological condition : leukemia, infectious process, inflammatory, purulent process, myocardial infarction, malignant tumor, uremia, loss of blood,shock. Leukopenia Physiological condition', deep sleep, starvation. Pathological condition ; bacterial, virus infectious, autoimmune dis- ease, hypoaplastic condition (administration X-ray, chemical substances, radiation), agranulocytosis (after administration some medicine - for treat- ment malignant process). The percentage of separate forms of leukocyte in peripheral smear is considered as leukocyte formula - it is the percentage of separate forms of blood leukocytes. The normal value of leukocyte formula Leukogramma: Bands or stabs neutrophils 0.04-0.3 x 1071 (1-6 %) Polymorphonuclear neutrophils 2.0-5.5 x 109/1 (47-72 %) Basophils 0-0.065 x 109/1 (0-1 %) Eosinophils 0.02-0.3 x 109/l (0.5-5 %) Lymphocytes 1.2-3. Ox 1071(19-37 %) Monocytes 0.09-0.60 x 1071 (3-11 %) Clinical significance o f leukocyte formula changes The leukocyte formula is counted in stained smears. The changes of different forms of leukocytes have clinical significance. Increasing of neutrophils number is classified as neutrophilia, decreasing - as neutropenia. Neutrophilia Infections: - pyogenic bacterial: staphylococcal, streptococcal, pneumococcal, menin- gococcal, gonococcal; - non pyogenic: acute rheumatic fever, diphtheria, scarlet fever, acute poliomy- elitis, cholera, herpes zoster, mycobacterial, fungal, spirochaetal, parasitic.
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412 Chapter 7. Examination of the Blood Metabolic disorders, due to varied causes leading to liver insufficiency, uremia, diabetes, acidosis, gout, eclampsia. Neoplasms: - myeloproliferative disorder: myeloid leukemia, lymphomas, polycythe- mia vera, myelosclerosis; - other malignancies: carcinomas (metastatic or otherwise), sarcomas Conditions causing cell necrosis or destruction: - acute hemolysis; - infarctions; - drug intoxication: nephrotoxins, hepatotoxins; - various drugs/chemicals implicated are phenacetin, digitalis, quinine, adrenaline, organic arsenicals, lead, mercury, carbon monoxide. Trauma and hemorrhage: - hemorrhage: acute hemorrhage (especially internal hemorrhage); - trauma: operative, fractures, crush injuries, bums. Cardiac disorders: - paroxysmal tachycardia. Collagen disease: - polyarteritis nodosa; - acute phase of rheumatoid arthritis; - dermatomyositis. It is necessary to account the degree of lobation of the neutrophile nuclei. After the degree of nuclear shift in the leukocytic formula the follow- ing kinds of neutrophilic leukocytosis are distinguished: 1) with any nuclear shift - an increased number of mature segmented neu- trophils on the background of leukocytosis as a whole; 2) with a hyporegenerative nuclear shift to the left - an increased number of band forms of neutrophils (above 5 %), it is characteristic of a slight course of several infections and inflammation;
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