To interpret the left half of the graph we would

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To interpret the left half of the graph, we would similarly need to consider  whether there are possible third variables that could explain the relationship  between reduced sleep and increased health risks.  Although observational studies can’t prove causation, they can be suggestive,  particularly alongside experimental evidence showing that sleep deprivation  leads to cognitive and metabolic changes that could have negative effects on  health.   Food lecture.  Note: there are a lot of slides that the  profressor DID NOT go over.  All of what he went over is  in my notes.  Human omnivore We are omnivores, or generalists, which means we pretty much eat everything.  The way we determine what we eat is through  taste biases. Taste bias:  -Positive response to things that are sweet and neg. to things that are bitter - Even babies respond based on taste bias, its inherent - Our basic biology of liking sweet and fatty things has led to the development of  chocolate.  The original cocoa bean is really bitter but we go through an  elaborate process to make it sweet and fatty.   Biology and food intake Food is a fundamental survival system, the most common association we  have Energy deficit  motivation to eat Enough energy not necessary to eat Energy intake….either Energy expenditure…or Energy storage Optimal foraging: we get the most for the littles amount of energy Regulation of food intake: every once in a while we run out of energy and  need food intake
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In nature, there isn’t over eating because there are no super markets Basically, we have adapted to use the smallest amont of energy possible to get  the most amount of food we can.   Four major changes in  the food world 1.  Increased amount of meat in diet (more than 2 million years ago) 2.  Cooking (250,000-1.8 million years ago) this makes food more  digestible, chewable, makes some food edible 3.  Agriculture/domestication (6-10 thousand years ago) make food  abundant in a way that was never before! Before, everyone had to spend most  time on food, now people could specialize 4.  Late 20 th  century  developed world, mega business, refrigeration,  globalization The concept of  preadaptation Preadaptation is the idea that most of development in the animal world isn’t the  development of something NEW, but instead the ADAPTATION of something  that already exists to a new function.   Example, Mouth:  our mouth initially developed to eat food, break down food,  etc.  When language developed, it uses the structures of the mout (teeth, 
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