Pyramid shaped organization structure the very shape

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Pyramid-Shaped Organization structure The very shape of large organizations is the most fundamental reason why organizational members are motivated toward political behavior. A pyramid concentrates power at the top. Subjective Standards of Performance People often resort to organizational politics because they do not believe that the organization has an objective and fair way of judging their performance and suitability for promotion. Like the terms "It's not what you know but who you know" applies to organizations that lack clear-cut standards of performance. Environmental uncertainty and Turbulence The uncertainty, turbulence, and insecurity created by corporate downsizings are a major contributor to office politics. Many people believe intuitively that favoritism plays a major role in deciding who will survive the downsizing. In response to this perception, organizational members attempt to ingratiate themselves with influential people. Emotional insecurity
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Some people resort to political maneuvers to ingratiate themselves with superiors because they lack confidence in their talents and skills. Machiavellian Tendencies Some people engage in political behavior because they want to manipulate others, sometimes for their own personal advantage. Encouraging Admiration from Subordinates Most organizational leaders say they do not encourage kissing up and that they prefer honest feedback from subordinates. Yet without meaning to, these same managers and leaders encourage flattery and servile praise. Managers, as well as other workers, send out subtle signals that they want to be praised, such as smiling after receiving a compliment and frowning when receiving negative feedback. Also, admirers are more likely to receive good assignments and high-performance evaluations. POLITICAL TACTICS AND STRATEGIES To make effective use of organizational politics, leaders must be aware of specific political tactics and strategies. Ethical Political Tactics and Strategies This section describes a sampling of ethical political behaviors, divided into three related groups: tactics and strategies aimed at (1) gaining power, (2) building relationships with superiors and coworkers, and (3) avoiding political blunders. 1. Strategies Aimed at Gaining Power All political tactics are aimed at acquiring and maintaining power, even the power to avoid a difficult assignment. Nine techniques aimed directly at gaining power. a. Develop power contact Cultivating friendly, cooperative relationships with powerful organizational members and outsiders can make the leader's cause much easier to advance. Developing power contacts is a focused type of social networking. b. Control vital information Power accrues to those who control vital information, as indicated in the discussion of personal power. To facilitate controlling vital information, it is politically important to stay informed. Successful leaders develop a pipeline to help them keep abreast, or ahead, of developments within the firm.
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