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While jazz can be seen as a crossover genre that

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While Jazz can be seen as a “crossover” genre that managed to make elementsof African-American musical culture accessible to white mainstream culture, themusicians who started the Rhythm and Blues in the 1940’s were much more similar totheir Blues origins, employing sounds close to the ones of the old big bands, andgenerally representing what was popular within the black community (Garofalo 2002,p. 114).From the outbreak of World War II, the black music scene was dividedbetween two different evolutions, one of major interaction with white musicians as itsincreasing popularity had enabled black music to enter mainstream culture, while theother was characterized by the creation of a black underground, a reaction to blacks'increasing cultural, and mainly musical integration (Eyerman, Jamison 1998). Blackmusic and the ghetto culture became a racially distinct matter, something that wassought after as truly “black” although, at the same time, it was also imposed by asociety that was still refusing to integrate them.Some black musicians, after a period
27of being popular among whites, went back to the support of their community, and hadtheir“authenticity” judged by it (Eyerman, Jamison 1998).Musicians in the ghettos gathered in clubs where bebop and Rhythm and Bluesevolved as distinct music styles; Parallel to the increasing distinction among blackmusic types, also the black public sphere was becomingmore differentiated whilealso socially fragmented. These different developments of inclusion and exclusion ledto subdivisions in music, including the evolution of Jazz and Rhythm-and-Blues as anew genre, as well as within communities and cities (Eyerman, Jamison 1998). Due tothe increasing popularity and the increasing mass-mediation of Blues music,expectations of young blacks, especially musicians, rose. The music of the new blacksoutherner was the Blues in a more commercial form, the Rhythm and Blues, which,in addition to the electrified Blues guitar, incorporated piano, saxophone, a drum-beatand a heavy bass line (Eyerman, Jamison 1998). During World War II, regional musicspread significantly and reached audiences nationally, due to northern soldiers livingin Southern military bases, as well as one million Southern blacks moving north inorder to find a job. The new Southern African-American immigrants had gainedenough money to become a distinct consumer group and, as a response, some radiostations began to introduce black-oriented programs (George 2003).However, by the end of the 1940’s, the rise of the popularity of solo artists andthe lack of resources to finance expensive big bands in a fragile post-war economy ledto a decline of big bands; it was the black artists which suffered more from thischange and by 1950, there was not a single black artist on year-end charts of popmusic. As major labels were ignoring black music, African-American culture wasevolving and black artists were reconnecting to the sound of the Blues with a newmusic style of the working-class blacks, the Rhythm and Blues (Garofalo 2002, p.

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