SizesLecture1

Min requirements for the perpetuation of cellular

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Min requirements for the perpetuation of cellular life, as observed on Earth: DNA-based genome mechanisms for DNA RNA proteins ribosomes AFM image of an E.coli cell Electron micrograph the E.coli ruler Human hair 1/500 E.coli DNA E.coli as a standard ruler: Note: size of E.coli depends on the nutrients provided: richer media => larger size. Biochem. studies usually use “minimal medium”: salts+glucose
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Bacterial Shapes Here we simply note that the diversity of cell shapes and sizes is immense. Star Square
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Every time I show you a picture of a cell, ask yourself how the architecture works. For cyanobacteria, we are going to examine several remarkable specializations related to their ability to perform photosynthesis. (Cannon et al.)
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Eukaryotic Cells: a rogue’s gallery
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Yeast as the model eukaryote A budding yeast cell: a model eukaryotic cell Budding yeast (S. cerevisiae): Fungi - most closely related to animals in terms of evolutionary descent and similarity of protein functions. Although there are no single-cell animals, there are some single-cell fungi. ~5 μ m Electron microscopy image of a cross-section of a budding yeast cell A scanning electron micrograph of budding yeast
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Size and shape of fibroblasts
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One of my favorite marine organisms is Emiliana huxleyi, a single-celled, eukaryote that performs photosynthesis to make a living. These organisms also have a peculiar morphology (mineral shell) that scatters light and gives characteristic appearance to the ocean from space known as a “bloom” Eukaryotic Phytoplankton
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Cell Size: Beyond the Mean Careful measurements of the size of yeast cells (for different mutants corresponding to different genes being knocked out) reveal a broad distribution of sizes. Compare these sizes to the mean sizes of bacterial cells. See reading in HW1 for similar characterization of bacteria. Cell size distribution of mammalian cells, Kirschner et al. Yeast cell size distribution, Jorgensen et al.
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An Environmental sample Here we simply note that the diversity of cell shapes and sizes is immense.
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The Inventory of cells Cells: variety of shapes and sizes, yet many common features of their mol. inventories <=> underlying biochemical unity of life. Physicists: fundamental unit of matter is the atom ( at least for chem. transactions ) Life metabolism + replication Biologists: indivisible unit of life is the cell L2 consump. & use of energy from envir. generating offspring that resemble the orig. Image: nobelprize.org Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Hooke.
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