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DSST Anthropology as a Discipline 2

This is a term devised by julian steward to account

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This is a term devised by Julian Steward to account for the dynamic relationship between human society and its environment, in which culture is viewed as the primary adaptive mechanism. The development of a culture from simpler to more complex forms, by a continuous process is known as cultural evolution. The subject may be viewed unilinearly, tracing the evolution of humankind as a whole; or it may be viewed multilinearly, treating the evolution of each culture or society (or of given parts of a culture or society) individually. Cultural evolution was an important concept in the emerging field of cultural anthropology during the 18th and 19th centuries. Noosphere is a term modeled after "atmosphere" and biosphere" signifying (a) the space occupied by the totality of information and human knowledge collectively available to man and (b) the processes operating in this space, e.g., combinatorial mating, classification, reproduction, simplification, selective decay. The Noosphere is the part of the world of life that is created by man's thought and culture. It is distinguished from the geosphere, the non living world, and from the biosphere, the living world. Cultural Determinism is the conviction that the accumulated knowledge, the organized beliefs, and the way of life prescribed by a culture (see noosphere) determines not only all other aspects of human cognition and social behavior but also the dynamics of the culture itself. A doctrine or theory used to describe the natural order of the universe is called a cosmology. A cosmology is a set of beliefs about the origin of society, how the universe was created, the nature of life and death, the relationship between people and nature. Physical Anthropology The genetic constitution of a person, the genotype , determines the hereditary potentials and limitations of an individual from embryonic formation through adulthood. An individual's genotype comprises the entire complex of genes inherited from both parents. It can be demonstrated mathematically that sexual reproduction virtually guarantees that each individual will have a unique genotype (except for those individuals, such as identical twins, who are derived from the same fertilized egg). A gene is a relatively small segment of DNA that codes for the synthesis (creation) of a specific protein. This protein made through the information in this gene then will play a structural or functional role in the body. A chromosome is a larger collection of DNA that contains many genes and the support proteins needed to control these genes. A Mendelian population is said to have a Gene Pool--the sum total of the genes carried by the individual members of the population. It also continues through time.
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The genes of the individuals of the generation now living come from a sample of the genes of the previous generation; if these individuals reproduce, their genes will pass into the gene pool of the following generations The process through which genes pass from the gene pool of one population through mating and
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