lect07-instruction-flow

# Problem fetch stalls until branch target is

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Problem: Fetch stalls until branch target is determined Solutions: Minimize delay Generate branch target early Make use of delay : Predict branch target Single target Multiple targets

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Control Dependences Control Flow Graph Shows possible paths of control flow through basic blocks BB 1 BB 2 BB 3 BB 4 BB 5 main: addi r2, r0, A addi r3, r0, B addi r4, r0, C BB 1 addi r5, r0, N add r10,r0, r0 bge r10,r5, end loop: lw r20, 0(r2) lw r21, 0(r3) BB 2 bge r20,r21,T1 sw r21, 0(r4) BB 3 b T2 T1: sw r20, 0(r4) BB 4 T2: addi r10,r10,1 addi r2, r2, 4 addi r3, r3, 4 BB 5 addi r4, r4, 4 blt r10,r5, loop end:
Control Dependences Control Dependence Node B is CD on Node A if A determines whether B executes If path 1 from A to exit includes B, and path 2 does not, then B is control-dependent on A BB 1 BB 2 BB 3 BB 4 BB 5 main: addi r2, r0, A addi r3, r0, B addi r4, r0, C BB 1 addi r5, r0, N add r10,r0, r0 bge r10,r5, end loop: lw r20, 0(r2) lw r21, 0(r3) BB 2 bge r20,r21,T1 sw r21, 0(r4) BB 3 b T2 T1: sw r20, 0(r4) BB 4 T2: addi r10,r10,1 addi r2, r2, 4 addi r3, r3, 4 BB 5 addi r4, r4, 4 blt r10,r5, loop end:

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Limits on Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP) Weiss and Smith [1984] 1.58 Sohi and Vajapeyam [1987] 1.81 Tjaden and Flynn [1970] 1.86 (Flynn’s bottleneck) Tjaden and Flynn [1973] 1.96 Uht [1986] 2.00 Smith et al. [1989] 2.00 Jouppi and Wall [1988] 2.40 Johnson [1991] 2.50 Acosta et al. [1986] 2.79 Wedig [1982] 3.00 Butler et al. [1991] 5.8 Melvin and Patt [1991] 6 Wall [1991] 7 (Jouppi disagreed) Kuck et al. [1972] 8 Riseman and Foster [1972] 51 (no control dependences) Nicolau and Fisher [1984] 90 (Fisher’s optimism)
Riseman and Foster’s Study 7 benchmark programs on CDC-3600 Assume infinite machines Infinite memory and instruction stack Infinite register file Infinite functional units True dependencies only at dataflow limit If bounded to single basic block, speedup is 1.72

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• Fall '09
• PROFGURISOHI
• Central processing unit, CPU cache, Branch predictor, branch, Instruction Flow, addi addi addi

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