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Chapter 5 Book Notes

What are the major groupings of life on earth plants

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What are the major groupings of life on Earth? Plants and animals Plant cells have cell wall Cell nucleus – an internal membrane that effectively walls off the genetic material from the rest of the cell Prokaryotes – organisms that lack cell nuclei; single-celled Eukaryotes – have cell nuclei; multi-cellular Microbes are more dominant than us and could survive without us 3 broad domains: Bacteria, Achaea, Eukarya (genetic relationships illustrated in tree of life) Conclusion: True diversity of life on Earth is found almost entirely within microscopic realm. As we trace branches toward “root” we see species that split from common ancestors at earlier times. What are the basic metabolic needs of life? Metabolism refers to chemical reactions that occur in living organism and are involved in providing energy or nutrients to cells Cell makes reactions faster and requires a source of raw materials and a source of energy ATP stores and releases energy for nearly all its chemical manufacturing. Each time a cell draws energy from a molecule of ATP, it leaves ADP. Carbon source and energy source (meet needs by food) Conclusion: Suggest a common ancestor. How do we classify life by its metabolic sources? Heterotroph: any organism that gets its carbon by eating Autotroph: gets carbon directly from environment Some cells get energy from photosynthesis, food, or inorganic chemicals Photoautotrophs: get energy from sunlight and carbon from carbon dioxide in environment
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Chemoautotrophs: obtain energy from chemical reactions involving inorganic chemicals and carbon from environmental carbon dioxide Photoheterotrophs: get energy from sunlight but get their carbon by consuming other organisms or the remains of such organisms Chemoheterotrophs: get both their energy and their carbon from food Water is key role (1) water makes organic chemicals readily available by allowing organic chemicals to float within cell (2) transports waste products (3) role in reactions with cells How does the structure of DNA allow for its replication? Double helix
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What are the major groupings of life on Earth Plants and...

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