That seem to work despite the inequalities argued it

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that seem to work despite the inequalities Argued it was good for everybody All communities are naturally unequal o Liberalism – the individual should not stifled by community; the enlightenment thinkers Focus on the individual – idea of balancing the claims of the collective community an the claims of individuals who were dominated *** Focused on just because the community has function in the past doesn’t mean it doesn’t hide injustices of inequality Argued you could get a better society if the needs of an individual was not ignored o Socialism – how to strike individual/community balance’ equity and relative equality vis constant redistribution of wealth, resources, power) Did not focus on the individuals nor the collective Their goal was how do you really balance Marx’s Philosophy: The Dialectical Perspective (from Hegel and earlier ancient Buddhist and Greek thinkers) A - Rejection of “either / or” dichotomy o Your either dead or alive o Cannot be both - “zero”; mind/brain; day/night; birth/death etc. - Non-dialectical: everything either totally positive or negative - Positivists vs. the Romantic-Conservatives on the French Revolution, Industrial Revolution B - Everything in constant movement, becoming, thru resolution of contradictions - “the permanence of change” - “you cannot step into the same river twice” - “Social Structure-Ideology-Agency" C - Relationship of “part” to “whole” - letters of an alphabet - a number in a numeral system
- an individual in society - words, sentences, language Marx’s time: two major philosophical positions Hegel: Idealism: ideas determine social change - idea – these anti-thesis synthesis thesis (example) - focus on change through “ideas” “consciousness” working out their contradictions (examples: communalism, feudalism, capitalism) - “conservatism” (focus on community not individuals) - Liberalism (focus on individual – community as a result of individualism) - Socialism (balancing individual/community needs and demands via redistribution of resources) Ludwig Feuerbach: (German philosopher) - “MATERIALISM”: humans completely determined by their material context - Social change due to “material” transformations, just as in nature: seed, plant, tree, fruits, seeds etc. - Social Change: population growth, development of new technologies, increase in productivity, more population etc. - “Ideas” are really irrelevant: rejection of Hegel’s “IDEALISM” Consciousness, working out contradictions determine social change (an application of the dialectal perspective) - A very “mechanical” understanding of social change Marx: dialectical approach to “IDEALISM” and “MATERIALISM” - Not either/or “Idealism” and “Materialism” - Both, interconnected, producing each other - “Ideas” and ”material context” influence each other - Marx rejects ”philosophy” for its own sake – philosophy for understanding the world, not just for producing more philosophy - “Philosophy and the study of the real world have the same relation to one another as onanism (???)

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