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- The basic claim of cultural relativism is that the correct moral standards are relative to cultures or societies(it believes societies and cultures as whole have correct moral standards)5.What is moral infallibility? Why does it present itself as a problem for these views?- Moral infallibility is when subjectivists are suspicious of cultural relativism because of the subjectivist belief that societies can be deeply mistaken about what is right or wrong.It presents itself as a problem for these views because some social belief is morally mistaken and clash with society’s cherished ideals.6.What is the claim of moral equivalence? Why does it present itself as a problem for these views?
- The claim of moral equivalence is everyone’s basic moral views are as plausible as everyone’s else’s.It presents itself as a problem for these views because If ethical relativism is true, then all culturally/individual determined moral claims are trivially equally morally plausible. Intuitively, all culturally/individual determined moral claims are not trivially equally morally plausible. So, ethical relativism is false.7.What is problematic about asserting that the value of something depends on an individual's, or a group's, approval of it?- What is problematic about asserting that the value of something depends on an individual’s or group’s approval is that approval is the ultimate test of morality.8.Why can't we genuinely question our own commitments, if ethical subjectivism is right?- We can’t genuinely question our own commitments, if ethical subjectivism is right because if subjectivism is true, this cannot make sense; where approvals and disapprovals are the ultimate test of right and wrong.9.Why can't we genuinely question our society's basic commitments, if cultural relativism is right?- We can’t question our society’s basic commitments, if cultural relativism is right because there is not roomto second guess the guiding ideals of one’s own society since they are the correct moral standards of that society. If it is correct, such questioning shows that one does not really understand what morality is all about.10.How does relativism undermine the possibility of moral progress?- Relativism undermines the possibility of moral progress by moral views that can change but cannot be improved.If relativism is correct, that ultimate rule is given by a society’s basic ideals.11.What contradictory results appear to follow from accepting relativism? How does ethical subjectivism deal with these results? How does cultural relativism deal with them?- The contradictory results that appear to follow from accepting relativism is Ethical subjectivism deals with these results byCultural relativism deals with it by12.How does the notion of Ideal Observers function in relation to challenges for relativism?