Therefore military service is conceived as defending

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therefore military service is conceived as defending the community, not just furthering its imperialist interests In addition to extending their dominion, reaping economic benefits, etc,. one of the major effects of the repeated cycles of warfare is increasing the number of men available to serve in the Roman army. as the length of campaigns increases and the distance from home, the army becomes increasingly professionalized; in second century and later, factors encourage soldiers to identify closely with individual commanders (again, break- up of oligarchic solidarity). the army is one of the key institutions through which people of different geographical and ethnic origins get incorporated into the Roman state and Roman culture; also key element in the circulation of people and practices around the empire. Two major sources of naturalized citizens: ex-slaves and veterans of “auxiliaries” (i.e. non-Roman armies who fight alongside the Romans). It has been estimated that in the imperial period, the army may have consumed as much as 50% of the state’s finances. 1/31/18 Historical overview: Early to mid-Republic Internal and External Pressures Given Rome’s perception of threats from other communities and its commitment to sustaining its military resources, how do these priorities affect internal politics? How does the way Rome responds to civil unrest and demands for inclusion affect its military actions and its dealings with other states and communities? How do the fundamental principles of incorporation and hierarchy shape these events? Expansion/conquest and effects Italian peninsula first phase: some cities simply incorporated (Veii, 396), many given “private” citizen rights (Capua and Cumae [near mod. Naples], 338), many left independent but allied, required to provide troops (Tibur, Praeneste, 338) also in this early period Rome began establishing colonies on the sites of some defeated cities; inhabitants were a mix of original inhabitants and Roman veterans and some other Roman citizens second phase: later in the fourth century and into the third, fighting against groups of nonurban peoples (esp the Samnites); settlements make some citizens with private rights, but many are allies (socii) Expansion/conquest and effects Note that most of these arrangements do not involve territorial expansion or direct control of local government by Rome. “...Rome exercised control over Italy, not by direct government, but by a complex network of alliances backed up by grants of Roman citizenship and intermittent programmes of colonisation.” - K. Lomas “Italy during the Roman Republic,” in Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (2004, p. 204) Expansion/conquest and effects What were the effects?
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