–Sense of self and identity•Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40 years)–Form loving relationships•Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65 years)–Create things that will outlast them•Integrity vs. Despair (65 plus)–Reflection, fulfillment
Cognitive ChangesChanges in Brain FunctioningThinking is more abstract and complexAttentionMemoryProcessing speedMetacognition
Changes in Brain StructureDopamine systemPrefrontal cortex“A powerful engine with no brakes!”
Activity: Formal OperationsObserve and compare the behavior of a younger child and an adolescent completing two Piagetian “formal operations” tasks.
Activity: Formal OperationsDiscuss the following questions with a partner (5 minutes)1.What differences did you notice between the two examples? (child vs. adolescent).2.How do these examples illustrate the abstract and complex thinking characteristic of adolescents?3.What new things might this more advanced type of thinking allow an adolescent to do?
Social ChangesRelationships with parentsRenegotiation of relationshipsIndependence AutonomyDistal monitoring by parentsPsychological control
Relationships with PeersExchanges of thoughts/ feelingsMixed sex peer groupsGroups of similar peersRiskier behavior in groupsPeer social supportEmergence of crowds
Behavioral and Psychological AdjustmentIdentity Formation: Marcia’s 4 identity statusesForeclosureAdolescent commits to an identity without exploring options.Identity diffusionAdolescents neither explore nor commit to an identity.MoratoriumAdolescents are actively exploring but have not made commitments.Identity achievementAdolescents explore options and make commitments. Ethnic identity development
Aggression and Anti-social BehaviorEarly startersLate startersGreater risk for early starters“Maturity gap”
Anxiety and DepressionFemales have higher rates in adolescenceSuicideInterpersonal factorsCo-ruminationEffect on relationships
What is Emerging Adulthood?Emerging adulthood (EA) is a new stage of the life span, roughly between the ages of 18 and 25 that has arisen over the past half-century in industrialized countries.