Unclear how many radical leaders actually were schizophrenic Most people with

Unclear how many radical leaders actually were

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Unclear how many “radical” leaders actually were schizophrenic Most people with disorder have severe problems, not usually charismatic Rarity of forming new cultures unlikely to explain high prevalence of schizophrenia Even if this happens once in a while, not enough to explain Paranoia Genes involved in suspiciousness may have allowed increased cheater detection in social exchange – more cautious social interactions Paranoid schizophrenia may be extreme trait variation SCHIZOPHRENIA Highly stable incidence rates and symptoms cross culturally, and high heritability Currently 28 genes are identified that are associated with the disorder However no clearly supported consensus on an evolutionary explanation Most of these theories d/n have much support, largely hypothetical at this point PERSONALITY DISORDERS Long-standing, pervasive and inflexible patterns of behavior that deviate from social norms and impair social functioning Across all contexts, most of the time Internal not brought on by external consistent Neurotic rather than psychotic symptoms Clusters Odd/Eccentric cluster - Paranoid = intense suspicion of others - Schizoid = lack of warm feelings for others - Schizotypal = interpersonal difficulties
Dramatic/Erratic cluster - Borderline = impulsive, especially in relationships - Histrionic = great show of emotions, but actually emotionally shallow - Narcissistic = overblown view of self, self-centered - Antisocial = dishonest, destructive, manipulative, often aggressive Anxious/Fearful - Avoidant = oversensitive to criticism - Dependent = lacks self-confidence and autonomy - Obsessive-Compulsive = preoccupied with rules and details Dramatic/Erratic Cluster: are these antisocial, self-absorbed behaviors maladaptive? - Time lag - Compromise - Pleiotrophy Similar potential explanations for major disorders ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDERS Psychopaths and sociopaths - Lack empathy, callousness - Low levels of anxiety, seek instant gratification Adaptive Explanation? - Frequency dependent cheating in reciprocating groups - Two conditions necessary for this explanation Disorder must have a genetic component Occur at low rate BALANCING THEORY = selection pressures from the social environment lead to different levels of a trait being observed - Some individuals have the potential to develop psychopathic traits might boost inclusive fitness by doing so under certain environmental conditions - Would predict more common in large cities than small towns - There may be genes people inherit to create a diathesis which is phenotypically expressed under the right conditions CONTINGENT SHIFT THEORY = Individuals may have a range of environmentally contingent strategies that can lead to APD under the right conditions - Differs in that it suggests that all individuals have the ability to develop psychopathy since we all have inherited modules that may be calibrated by an adverse social environment to release callous and manipulative behavior - Relationship between child abuse and psychopathy Is there a heritable component?

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