Nine fauna profiles are provided for very high or

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Nine fauna profiles are provided, for ‘very high’ or ‘high’ species listed as threatened or Migratory under the EPBC Act. These are in alphabetical order by scientific name: Acanthornis magna greeniana (King Island Scrubtit), Acanthiza pusilla archibaldi (King Island Brown Thornbill), Botaurus poiciloptilus (Australasian Bittern), Haliaeetus leucogaster (White-bellied Sea Eagle), Litoria raniformis (Green and Gold Frog), Neophema chrysogaster (Orange-bellied Parrot), Sternula albifrons sinensis (Fairy Tern), Sternula nereis nereis (Little Tern), and Thinornis rubricollis (Hooded Plover). Cyathea cunninghamii (slender treefern) Description Cyathea cunninghamii is a tall treefern in the Cyatheaceae family with a slender trunk and small crown (Plate 1). Recruitment is from spores, with plants reaching maturity at an age of 25–30 years. Cyathea cunninghamii has an erect trunk to 20 m tall and 8–10 cm diameter, coated towards the base with adventitious roots; stipe bases are persistent above, crumbly. Fronds are 1.5–3 m long and form a relatively small crown; stipes short, coarse, black, dull, with numerous, very small, sharp tubercles; scales (at base of stipe) papery, shiny, pale fawn to light brown (often with dark central streaks), 1–4 cm long, ovate to linear with hair points, each with a dark seta at the tip. Lamina dark green, sub-triangular to sub-lanceolate, 3-pinnate with pinnae shorter near the stipe; primary and secondary pinnae narrowly oblong with secondary pinnae decreasing abruptly to linear tips; lower surface of rachises with scattered scales (usually membranous and flat, with a terminal seta). Pinnules sessile with adjacent, broad bases continuous, margins shallowly toothed when sterile, and deeply lobed when fertile; lower surface of veins with tiny, colourless, stellate hairs. Sori are arranged in two rows on the lower surface of the pinnules with one sorus per lobe; indusium prominent, deeply but incompletely cup-shaped with a notch towards its margin, membranous, dark at centre of base. On drying the cup may split and appear as two slightly concave half cups (Duncan & Isaac 1986). Confusing Species: Trunk, stipe, pinnule and indusium characters may be used to distinguish Cyathea cunninghamii from the allied taxa Cyathea australis and Cyathea x marcescens . Cyathea cunninghamii has a trunk at maturity of <20 cm in diameter, scales at the base of its stipes are often streaked, pinnules that are petiolate, and sori with large cup-like indusia. The other two taxa have King Island Biodiversity Management Plan 113
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trunk diameters >20 cm, scales at the base of stipe that are varnished, pinnules that are joined to the rachis, and an indusium that is semi-circular for Cyathea x marcescens and absent for Cyathea australis (Duncan & Neyland 1986, Forest Practices Board 2003). The three species also mature at different heights: Cyathea australis when <1 m, Cyathea x marcescens 1–1.5 m, and Cyathea cunninghamii when >3 m. Cyathea cunninghamii and Cyathea x marcescens also tend grow close to watercourses, while Cyathea australis usually occurs higher up the slopes (Garrett 1996).
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  • Fall '14
  • The Hours, ........., Threatened species, Bass Strait, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, King Island

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