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information storage devices. This definition implies that cyber space is greater than the sum of its parts. Any estimation of the capabilities and possibilities in cyber space must focus on cyber space as an environment with its own unique terrain, rather than a collection of systems. Resolving Conflicting Terms in Cyber Warfare If CW is war in cyber space, then is CW the same as Information Warfare (IW) or Information Operations (IO)? The answer is no. CW is related to IW and IO in much the same way as naval warfare and land warfare are particular components of warfare in general. CW is IW and IO, but IW and IO are not only CW. This distinction is important in any discussion about CW, because the terms are often used as describing the same act. IW and IO are much broader terms used to describe the use of information in any form, to conduct war or operations against another entity. CW specifically requires the use of cyber space to conduct war. If CW is war in cyber space, then what does CW actually do? Formal doctrine and studies on CW are rare in an open source environment. However, many security professionals ask questions about what CW actually does, or what CW is for. Libicki (2007) classifies CW into four basic capabilities. According to him, CW can be used to conduct espionage, cause disruption, cause corruption, and cause distraction (p, 79). Historical Perspectives on Cyber War Historically, the Internet is a military invention and should be seen as a platform for different kinds of information operation for and against a state. However, contrary to popular notion, cyber war did not begin with the construction of the Internet. Cyber warfare (CW) actually finds its roots in hacking. Therefore, to understand CW, hacking must be understood first. “Hacking”
5and “hacker” have become terms that most people associate with talented computer programmers who have learnt to exploit systems that the average person does not completely understand. But, the term hacker pre-dates the emergence of the silicon chip based computers most people are currently familiar with. In the late 1950s, the MIT model railroad club was given a donation of parts, mostly old telephone equipment. The club’s members used this equipment to rig up a complex system that allowed multiple operators to control different parts of the track by dialing in to the appropriate sections. They called this new and inventive use of telephone equipment hacking; many people consider this group to be the original hackers. (Erickson 2008, 2) The hacker culture stayed with telephone equipment as their medium of choice through the 1980s. The Bell phone networks became a target for hackers who specifically called themselves phone phreaks (Goldstein 2009, xxxvii). Early phone phreaks would whistle a sound at 2600 hertz into a telephone, which the system would recognize and allow access to the long distance phone network. The phone phreak would then have access to the entire system the way an operator would (Goldstein 2009, xxxvii). This iconic frequency has become the title of one of the more influential hacker publications titled simply: 2600. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were