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ISS_225_Lec_7_Politial_Science

Examples include welfare programs education civil

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Examples include welfare programs, education, civil rights. The states were forced to carry on federal programs 5. 1968-1993 New Federalism During this period the states were given more power and more control over the money given to them through federal grants. This is often called devolution, “the transfer of federal programs to state and local governments.” (textbook) 6. 1995 – Present Presently, there seems to have been a shift away from devolution and towards increased government involvement, especially during the Bush and Obama administrations. IV. Executive Power The presidency is often called the most powerful position in the world. The Constitution (Article II) provides for a single executive who would be commander-in-chief of the armed forces, be able to appoint executive department heads, judges, ambassadors, and others, and recommend measures to Congress. However, the founders had no intention of creating an executive with the overwhelming influence and powers that it has today. They saw the presidency basically having limited powers. When George Washington was president the total federal budget was just over $4 million, there were only about 300 federal officeholders, the cabinet consisted of five officials, and there were only 700 Americans in uniform. 9
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ISS 225 – Power, Authority, Exchange Politics/Government What is most important about these powers is how individual presidents have interpreted their powers and to what extent they have stretched them to the limit, particularly in terms of their roles as chief executive, chief legislator, chief diplomat, and commander in chief. A. Chief Executive One of the primary roles of the president is the administration of government (“take care that laws be faithfully executed”). The way this is done is through the president’s role as head of a huge formal and informal bureaucracy charged with administering government programs and implementing the laws of Congress. 1. Appointing officials – top executive agency positions, most need approval of the Senate. 2. Removing officials – especially president’s advisors. 3. Reorganizing the executive branch agencies – reorganize offices and agencies to suit their own style. 4. Budget making – the president proposes the annual budget, which is approved by Congress. 5. Executive privilege – the right of the president to refuse to make public some internal documents and private conversations. 6. Executive orders – the president can issue directives or proclamations that have the force of law. They are used to implement treaties and legislative statutes that are vague, but most commonly to carry out administrative duties in the form of directives issued to an executive branch office (organization, procedures, restructuring). The president has an extensive staff of advisors to help him with these tasks. B. Chief Legislator Over the years the president has become a major shaper of the congressional agenda and has thus often been termed the chief legislator.
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