present in body fluids blood vaginal fluid semen breast milk Depletes portion

Present in body fluids blood vaginal fluid semen

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present in body fluids (blood, vaginal fluid, semen,breast milk)-Depletes portion of the immune system (Th cells), Transmitted through blood/blood products, IV drug use, hetero/homosexual activity, maternal-child transmission before or
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deficient immune systemWindow period: Time between infection and appearance of antibody (individual may not have antibody, but may have virus growing, in the blood and body fluids, be infectious towards others**early symptoms nonspecific to HIV (fatigue,fever, muscle aches, headaches) or may be asymptomatic for up to 10 years (viral load increases, CD4+ cells decrease)making individuals extremely susceptible to life-threatening infections/malignancies -Primary surface receptor onHIV is the envelope glycoprotein gp120, binds tothe molecule CD4, found primarily on surface of helper T cells during birth-Use a viral enzyme, reverse transcriptase (convert RNA > doublestranded DNA)-Uses a second enzyme (integrase), the new DNA is inserted into the infected cell’s genetic material -May remain dormant or activated > translation of viral informationDifferentiate between clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of influenza, and measles and describe the clinical implications for your practice as a nurse practitioner. Viral InfectionClinical ManifestationsPathophysiologyClinical Implications InfluenzaFevers, myalgias, malaise, dry cough, headaches-Systemic symptoms d/t cytokines released not the infectionViral infection does not go beyond respiratory system because hemagglutinin is cleaved by proteases locatedin the respiratory system-Immunity= IgA function-Mutations in the virus are d/t changes in the neuraminidase & hemagglutinin viral proteins (surface proteins and named H1N1)Complications: secondary bacterial PNA, bronchitis, viral pneumonia, febrile seizure, encephalitis, myocarditisMeaslesFever, malaise, anorexia conjunctivitis, cough-Photophobia-Rash that starts as 1-3mm whitish, grayish/bluish witherythematous base (usually seen on buccal mucosa opposite of the molars)-Maculopapular, blanching rash which begins on the face and spread from the head down > trunk > extremities-Petechiae may be present > rash will no longer be blanchable-Starts improving 48 hours Complications: occurs in 30% of cases- includes diarrhea, encephalitis, systemic immune suppression, and pneumonia (most common cause of death)At risk for complications: pregnant women, immunocompromised
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after rash appearsAnalyze the HIV viral structure, the process by which it infects the CD4 cells and viral replication and describe:the clinical significance of the CD4 celloFunction to activated macrophages (B cells), cytotoxic T-cells and other CD 4 cellsoRelease lymphokines that begin the inflammatory process & mediatedelayed hypersensitivity reactions such as TB skin testoTH 1 & TH2- cells released by lymphokineshow antiretroviral medications impede viral replicationoART: Inhibits enzyme reverse transcriptase, viral protease, fusion between HIV and the cell membrane, HIV binding to CCR3 (CCR5 antagonists)
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