In czechoslovakia after the economy registered a

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promised a Polish road to Socialism. In Czechoslovakia, after the economy registered a negative growth rate in 1961, party leaders commissioned a team of loyal Party economists to propose economic reforms; this ignited in the elaboration of a new model of socialism that its creators deemed more appropriate to a Western, developed society. Also, in Czechoslovakia, the reform process spread to the Communist Party when Dubcek replaced the hard-line Stalinist Novotny.Right Wing Extremists: Groups loyal to Fascism/Nazism/etc and groups with strong ethnic ties (Ustase, Chetniks, etc) were strongly against the Party.Explaining differences among the countries:Degree of leadership’s toleration of dissident groups: Dissident groups in Czechoslovakia were silenced with the Husak regime after the Prague Spring. All discussion of reform became taboo, and only a small number of intellectuals, soon labeled dissidents by the regime, engaged in independent activity. In Bulgaria, the hardline Stalinist rulers were successful in placing tight restrictions on cultural and political life. Zhivkov’s ability to thwart any organized domestic opposition to Leninist rule earned him the complete support of the Soviet leadership.Current conditions in the country: Communism in the mid-1960s in Hungary was consistently less repressive than elsewhere in the bloc partly because the population was both satisfied with what it had economically and wary of trying for political change after the Soviet invasion. Hungarian dissident groups (very few) did exist, but did not suffer any real repression or achieve mass popular support. Basically, if the general population was not suffering too badly, there was likely to be far less dissident groups than countries in suffering from food shortages or other decreases in the standard of living.Reputation of the country’s intelligentsia:Although there were occasional strikes in Romania over bread-and-butter “workers’ issues” they did not catalyze the kind
of worker-intelligentsia alliance pressing for socioeconomic and political reforms that was forged in Poland between 1976-1980. The Romanian intelligentsia lacked the traditional aura of being deemed the conscience of the nation that the Polish and Hungarian intelligentsia's possessed, and it remained rather aloof from the grievances of the peasants and workers. Moreover, the churches in Romania (again in contrast to Poland) had long been weak and disorganized.

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