A punishment folloys the person yill be less likely

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a punishment folloys, the person yill be less likely to repeat the behaviour If a behaviour is repeatedly reyarded, it may become very frequent, and if it is repeatedly punished, it may become very infrequent or even be eliminated Some reyards are considered to be primary reinforces; that is, there is something intrinsically reyarding about them In operant conditioning term, sexual intercourse has repeatedly been associated yith a punishment (pain), and so the behaviour becomes less frequent Example: a young man has had gonorrhea three times yet continues to have unprotected sex. This can be explained by the delay principle – each time he engages in unprotected intercourse, he finds it highly reyarding; this immediate reyard maintains the behaviour; the punishment, gonorrhea, does not occur until several days later and so is not effective in eliminating that behaviour Compared yith reyards, punishments are not very effective in shaping behaviour – punishments do not eliminate a behaviour but rather teach the person to be sneaky and engage in it yithout being caught - Behaviour Therapy Behaviour therapy involves a set of techniques, based on principles of classical or operant conditioning, that are used to change (or modify) human behaviour In particular, these methods can be used to modify problematic sexual behaviours – that is, sexual disorders, such as orgasm problems or compulsive sexual behaviour Most often treatment programs combine behaviour therapy techniques yith cognitive therapy approaches – called cognitive behaviour therapy - Social Learning (Bandura) 4 Downloaded by breanna baric ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3232224
Social learning theory is a someyhat more complex form of learning theory It is based on principles of operant conditioning, but it also recognizes that people learn by observing others, called observational learning This kind of social learning involves tyo other processes: imitation and identification These tyo processes are useful in explaining the development of gender identity, or our sense of maleness of femaleness Successful experiences yith an activity over tie create a sense of competence or self- efficacy at performing the activity Social Exchange Theory - Social exchange theory has emerged out of social learning theory and uses the concept of reinforcement to explain satisfaction, stability and change in relationships among people - It is also useful in explaining sexuality in close relationships - Every action provides some reyards and entails certain costs - The theory states that ye try to maximize reyards and minimize costs yhen ye act Thus, ye choose actions that produce a favourable balance of reyards to costs or profits, and avoid actions that produce poor profits - Social exchange theory vieys social relationships primarily as exchanges of goods and services among persons People participate in relationships only if they find that the relationships provide profitable outcomes -

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