also see a very mixed pattern of brain wavesSleep spindles—bursts of high frequency wavesK complexes, sudden, sharp waveforms -Stage 3 & 4Usually takes about half an hour to get to stage 4—deepest stageYou’re hardest to wake up during this stage, confused and disoriented if awoken-REM Sleep Characteristics: ‘Paradoxical sleep’; rapid eye movementPhysiological arousal at levels similar to being awake Some twitching, but very relaxed muscle tone (sleep paralysis)Signs of sexual arousalVivid dreams (most dreaming)-Sleep Cycles:Cycle= about 90 minutes or longerREM becomes longer and deep sleep becomes shorterAge Affects
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-Newborns spend about 50% of their time in REM sleep-Adults spend much less time in REM sleep; about 20-25%-REM sleep stays stable throughout adulthood, but deep sleep decreases with agePurpose and Functions of Sleep-Supporting the importance of sleep:Occurs across divers taxonomic groups Recovery or rebound sleepNegative (sometimes serious) consequences of sleep deprivation-Sleep as a ‘time out’ period:Time to repair, restore, and replenishEliminates waste productsRepairs any damaged cellsReplenishes energy stores or conserves energyStrengthens immune systemRecovers abilities that are lost during the dayEffects of Sleep Deprivation-Mental ConsequencesIncreased cortisol production- stressImpaired learning and memoryReduced or impaired neurogenesisImpaired attention and information processingAttention deficits- increased accident risksLowered mental flexibility and creativityMood disturbancesHallucinations, delusions, paranoia-Physical ConsequencesLow energyHormonal irregularitiesImpaired immune functionsHigher risk of disease and infectionInability to regulate temperatureWeight gain (or severe weight loss)Organ failure Death Fatal Familial Insomnia-A rare genetic disorder where there is a mutation or dominant autosomal gene that affects the functions of the hypothalamus-Highly inheritable; about 50% chance if a parent is effectedPartial Sleep Deprivation-Negative effects are most pronounced when:
A person is getting <5 hours of sleep per night for consecutive nightsA person is working on long, difficult, monotonous tasks-Studies show most people don’t recognize when they’re impaired, and often rate their performance higher than non-deprived participantsSleep Disorders1. Insomnia-Problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early-Causes: stress, anxiety, emotional problems, substance use, medical conditions, bad sleep habits-Treatments: medication2. Somnambulism (sleep walking)-Occurs more often during non-REM sleep rather than REM sleep (paralyzed in REM)-Usually in the first two hours during slow-wake sleep -Danger from accident due to carelessness or special unawareness of sleepwalking-Occasionally results in unwanted or violent acts3. REM Behavior Disorder (RBD)-
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