Also see a very mixed pattern of brain waves sleep

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also see a very mixed pattern of brain waves Sleep spindles—bursts of high frequency waves K complexes, sudden, sharp waveforms - Stage 3 & 4 Usually takes about half an hour to get to stage 4—deepest stage You’re hardest to wake up during this stage, confused and disoriented if awoken - REM Sleep Characteristics: ‘Paradoxical sleep’; rapid eye movement Physiological arousal at levels similar to being awake Some twitching, but very relaxed muscle tone (sleep paralysis) Signs of sexual arousal Vivid dreams (most dreaming) - Sleep Cycles: Cycle= about 90 minutes or longer REM becomes longer and deep sleep becomes shorter Age Affects
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- Newborns spend about 50% of their time in REM sleep - Adults spend much less time in REM sleep; about 20-25% - REM sleep stays stable throughout adulthood, but deep sleep decreases with age Purpose and Functions of Sleep - Supporting the importance of sleep: Occurs across divers taxonomic groups Recovery or rebound sleep Negative (sometimes serious) consequences of sleep deprivation - Sleep as a ‘time out’ period: Time to repair, restore, and replenish Eliminates waste products Repairs any damaged cells Replenishes energy stores or conserves energy Strengthens immune system Recovers abilities that are lost during the day Effects of Sleep Deprivation - Mental Consequences Increased cortisol production- stress Impaired learning and memory Reduced or impaired neurogenesis Impaired attention and information processing Attention deficits- increased accident risks Lowered mental flexibility and creativity Mood disturbances Hallucinations, delusions, paranoia - Physical Consequences Low energy Hormonal irregularities Impaired immune functions Higher risk of disease and infection Inability to regulate temperature Weight gain (or severe weight loss) Organ failure Death Fatal Familial Insomnia - A rare genetic disorder where there is a mutation or dominant autosomal gene that affects the functions of the hypothalamus - Highly inheritable; about 50% chance if a parent is effected Partial Sleep Deprivation - Negative effects are most pronounced when:
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A person is getting <5 hours of sleep per night for consecutive nights A person is working on long, difficult, monotonous tasks - Studies show most people don’t recognize when they’re impaired, and often rate their performance higher than non-deprived participants Sleep Disorders 1. Insomnia - Problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early - Causes: stress, anxiety, emotional problems, substance use, medical conditions, bad sleep habits - Treatments: medication 2. Somnambulism (sleep walking) - Occurs more often during non-REM sleep rather than REM sleep (paralyzed in REM) - Usually in the first two hours during slow-wake sleep - Danger from accident due to carelessness or special unawareness of sleepwalking - Occasionally results in unwanted or violent acts 3. REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) -
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