274a Waste Defects Defects result from products that are not fit for use This

274a waste defects defects result from products that

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2.7.4a Waste: Defects Defects result from products that are not fit for use. This results in the product either getting reworked or dumped, which is costly as this adds additional costs to production without adding any value (Soliman, 2017). LM aims to prevent defects from occurring rather than correcting them. 2.7.4b Tool: Poka Yoke Poka Yoke can be used to eliminate defects. Sable and Dakhore (2017) identify Poka Yoke as mistake proofing using any automatic device or method that prevents an error from occurring or makes the error immediately identifiable once it has occurred. As shown in Figure: 10, a prevention-based Poka yoke system detects the defect before it occurs and a detection-based Poka yoke signals when a mistake has been made. Once the detection has been made, the system does not allow continuation of the process until the problem has been solved. This eliminates the waste of defects. Figure 10: Poka Yoke (Source: RNA Automation, 2019) However, the challenge with Poka Yoke has been the difficulty in convincing all stakeholders to implement poka-yoke devices. Some of the devices are expensive and some businesses might not be keen on making the investment. 13 Prevention-based Poka Yoke Defects Mistakes Process Detection-based Poka Yoke MOD005581 SID Number:
2.7.5a Waste: Waiting The waste of waiting includes delays for example process delays, idle equipment, people delays, instruction delays etc. This is costly as it ties up capital and also not adding any value to the product (Soliman, 2017). Waiting can also trigger the waste of defects if the processes get hurried in order to catch up, shop floor workers have been noted to take shortcuts and bypass systems when they fall behind in production. 2.7.5b Tool: Takt time Soliman (2017) recommends Takt time to eliminate the waste of waiting through ensuring that processes are better matched with regards to cycle times. Takt time is the rate and speed needed to complete a product so as to meet customers demand (Sundara, Balajib and SatheeshKumar, 2014). These rates and speeds are measured through determining the average time that is taken from the start of production of a unit and the start of production of the following unit (Sundara, Balajib and SatheeshKumar, 2014), as shown in Figure 11. However, takt time has been known to create boredom in employees because of repetitive tasks. 14 Figure 11: Takt time (Source: Wedgwood, 2006, p.138) MOD005581 SID Number:
2.7.5c Tool: Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Wilson (2010, p.63) recommends using TPM to Improve machine reliability. TPM is a management approach to maintenance focusing on the involvement of all the business’ employees in equipment improvement. As shown in Figure 12, TPM involves a range of methods which leads to in improved reliability, quality, and production (Das, Venkatadri and Pandey, 2013).

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