Symptoms of excess cortisol secretion (weight gain, hypertension, fluid retention, hyperglycemia…etc.) How the parathyroid and thyroid help regulate calcium Parathyroid – when calcium levels fall, parathormone is released , this increases the amount of calcium absorbed by the GI tract by interaction with Vitamin D Prevents a loss of calcium through kidneys Releases calcium from bones by stimulating osteoclastic activity When proper level of calcium is stored, PTH is no longer released Difference between type 1 and 2 diabetes o Insulin resistance Diabetes 1- destruction of the islet cells Inadequate production of insulin Must take insulin Type 2- Sufficient amount of insulin Insulin RESISTANCE Lost ability to influence cells Neuropathy Which gland regulates the adrenal cortex? o Difference between the anterior and posterior pituitary Anterior is stimulated by the hypothalamus while the posterior is stimulated by hormones released by hypothalamus. The Anterior gland regulates the adrenal cortex. Symptoms of hypothyroidism vs. hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism- bloated appearance, thick tongue, puffy eyelids, dry scaly skin, little perspiration, muscular weakness, excessive sleepiness, sluggish mental and physical processes, slurred speech, slow reflex, decreased HR, slow circulation, edema Tinnitus – what is it? o Symptoms Inner ear disorder- Ringing in the ear Can result from loud noise, ear infections, foreign objects in ear, wax buildup, withdrawal from benzodiapiene, aging Tetanus, what disease does it cause Lock jaw – infection of the nerve tissue Caused by rod like tetanus bacillus, enter wound and flourish in neucrotic tissue of pus infection and the absence of O2 Reye’s syndrome and it’s association with aspirin May develop in children after viral infection NO Aspirin Children who use aspirin during the flu or chicke pox are at risk Shingles, who get it? (age group) Ones that have chicken pox Over the age of 50 Ventricles of the brain (what fluid does it contain) The ventricles of the brain contain cerebrospinal fluid derived from the plasma and flows through the ventricle to the brain and the spinal cord Vertigo Meneire disease – symptom of it Macula degeneration and glaucoma o Symptoms Insidious disease of the eye that causes pressure to build up in the eye. Fluid accumulation occurs and pressure increases. Causes retina to lose its ability to see and eventually peripherial vision is lost and causes lost of eyesight. Usually painless Black americans are most affected Macula degernation- reduction or loss of sharpest retinal vision . Lose vision in center and peripherial is the only thing left Cataracts
Lens of the eye become cloudy. Cause unknown- 4 reasons -toxic , traumatic, congential, and senile. Lens enlarge and become thicker and heavier. Surgery helps vision again by replacing lens Stigmatism Astigmatism is an optical defect in which vision is blurred due to the inability of the optics of the eye to focus a point object into a sharp focused image on the retina. This
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- Fall '09
- Diabetes, small blood vessels