ii.Describe the transformation of the following areas due to federal military spending 1. The West/California: WWII sae the West Coast emerge as a focus of military-industrial production. The government invested billions of dollars in the shipyards of Seattle, Portland, and San Francisco and in the steel plants and aircraft factories of southern California. By the war’s end, California had received one-tenth of all federal spending, and Los Angeles had become the nation’s second largest manufacturing center. Nearly 2 million Americans moved to California for jobs in defense-related industries, and millions more passed through for military training and embarkation to the Pacific war. 2. The South: The combination of rural out-migration and government investment in military-related factories and shipyards hastened a shift from agricultural to industrial employment. During the war, southern per capita income rose form 60 percent to 70 percent of the national average. But the south remained very poor when the war ended. Much of its rural population still lived in small wooden shacks with no indoor
plumbing. The region had only two cities - Houston and New Orleans - with populations exceeding 500,000. Despite the expansion of war production, the South’s economy still relied on agriculture and extractive industries - mining, lumber, oil - or manufacturing linked to farming, like the production of cotton textiles. c. Labor in Wartime: i. Describe the successes and failures of labor in the WW2: ● During the war, labor entered a three-sided arrangement with government and business that allowed union membership to soar to unprecedented levels. Despite the gains produced by labor militancy during the 1930s, unions only became firmly established in many sectors of the economy during WWII. Congress continued to be dominated by a conservative alliance of Republicans and southern Democrats. They left intact core New Deal programs like Social Security but eliminated agencies thought to be controlled by leftists, including the Civilian Conservation Corps, National Youth Administration, and Works Progress Administration. Despite the “no-strike” pledge, 1943 and 1944 witnessed numerous brief walkouts in which workers protested the increasing speed of assembly-line production and the disparity between wages frozen by government order and expanding corporate profits.