: whereas 30 years ago girls lagged behind boys in educationaloutcomes, it seems that “girl power” mantras, Title IX (provided equal funding togirls in classrooms and for sports), and the feminist movement have made their mark Girls are now surpassing boys in their educational outcomesGirls outperform boys in national reading and writing tests, attend college in highernumber and are more likely to graduate However, despite all of the education that women attain, it does not pay off in theworkplaceAs recently as 2014, women earned only 83% of what men with an equal educationdoBoys are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and experience series of problemsat school, make up a larger proportion of those taking calculus and science AP tests,and score higher than girls on every AP test except for foreign languages, though girlsrepresent a higher proportion of those taking certain testsBoys may perform better than girls on college entrance exams, but this appears to bethe only advantage they enjoy at the moment It is not so much that girls are surpassing boys in educational achievements but thatthey have started doing equally well at the same time that boys from lower-classbackgrounds have started doing worseAll in the FamilyGrowing up in the same family with the same parents is no guarantee that siblings aregoing to end up with similar educational outcomesFirst, parents may not recognize the delicate balance that exists between the numberof children they have, their spacing (e.g. three children one year apart versus threechildren all four years apart), and their gender compositionYet, all three factors have significant impacts on educational achievement Brian Powell and Lala Carr Steelman (1990)determined that students with siblingspaced closer together had lower achievement scores and gradesoThis research also found that while an additional sibling in the family isdamaging to the other children’s grades, additional brothers had a particularlynegative impactRVCHAPTER 13: EDUCATION
The research dilution modelis a hypothesis that suggests that parental resources arefinite and that each additional child gets a smaller amount of them If children are spaced closer together, there is more competition for the sameresources at the same time Research (Downey, 1995)has supported such a model, finding that the frequency ofcommunication with parents, parent’ educational expectations, the amount of moneysaved for college, and presence of educational materials in the home all successfullyexplain the effect of family size on educational performance Singleton children, despite common stereotypes as an at-risk group, on averageoutperform those children with siblings, because they enjoy a monopoly on familyresources (also tend to come from more socioeconomically advantaged families)Although some researchers have found that birth order has no effects, evidence hasbeen uncovered that
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