202 objectives to improve the companies income by

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20.2 OBJECTIVES To improve the companies income by making the production more acceptable to the customers. To reduce companies cost through reduction of losses due to defects. To achieve interchangeability of manufacture in large scale production. To produce optimal quality at reduced price. To ensure satisfaction of customers with productions or services or high quality level, to build customer goodwill, confidence and reputation of manufacturer. 20.3 CONTENTS 20.3.1 Quality 20.3.2 Quality Control 20.3.3 Fundamental Factors Affecting Quality 20.3.4 Need for Controlling Quality 20.3.5 Types of Quality control 20.3.6 Steps in Quality control 20.3.7 Objectives of Quality control 20.3.8 Benefits of Quality Control 20.3.9 Inspection 20.3.10 Objectives of Inspection 20.3.11 Purpose of Inspection 20.3.12 Types of Inspection 20.3.12.1 Floor inspection 20.3.12.2 Centralized inspection 20.3.12.3 Combined inspection 20.3.12.4 Functional inspection 20.3.12.5 First piece inspection 20.3.12.6 Pilot piece inspection 20.3.12.7 Final Inspection 20.3.13 Methods of Inspection 20.3.14 Drawbacks of Inspection
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240 20.3.15 Total Quality Management 20.3.16 Seven Tools for Quality Control 20.3.17 Benefits of TQM 20.3.18 SIX Sigma concepts 20.3.19 ISO series 20.3.20 Benefits of ISO Series 20.3.1 QUALITY Different meaning could be attached to the word quality under different circumstances. The word quality does not mean the quality of manufactured product only. It may refer to the quality of the process (i.e., men, material, and machines) and even that of management. Where the quality manufactured product referred as or defined as “Quality of product as the degree in which it fulfills the requirement of the customer. It is not absolute but it judged or realized by comparing it with some standards”. Quality begins with the design of a product in accordance with the customer specification further it involved the established measurement standards, the use of proper material, selection of suitable manufacturing process etc., quality is a relative term and it is generally used with reference to the end use of the product. Crosby defined as “Quality is conformance to requirement or specifications”. Juran defined as “Quality is fitness for use”. “The Quality of a product or service is the fitness of that product or service for meeting or exceeding its intended use as required by the customer.” 20.3.2 QUALITY CONTROL Quality Control (QC) may be defined as a system that is used to maintain a desired level of quality in a product or service. It is a systematic control of various factors that affect the quality of the product. It depends on materials, tools, machines, type of labour, working conditions etc. QC is a broad term, it involves inspection at particular stage but mere inspection does not mean QC. As opposed to inspection, in quality control activity emphasis is placed on the quality future production. Quality control aims at prevention of defects at the source, relies on effective feedback system and corrective action procedure. Quality control uses inspection as a valuable tool. According to Juran “Quality control is the regulatory
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