B concentration gradient is high to low c solutes

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b.Concentration gradient is high to low;c.Solutes include glucose, gases, ions, hormones, and vitamins;d.Example is blood being filtered through the capillaries(glomerulus) of the kidney to remove wastes.B.Physiologic (Active) Transport Processes (require energy expenditure)1.ACTIVE TRANSPORT:See Fig 3.29, page 85.a.Molecules or ions move from an area where they are inlowconcentrationtowardan area where they are inhigherconcentration at the expense of cellular energy (i.e. ATP).substances include manyions, amino acids and monosaccharides.The Na+- K+- ATPase pump(which maintains the Resting Membrane Potential in manycells) is an example.2.ENDOCYTOSISa.Molecules or particles that aretoo largeto enter the cell bypassive transport or active transport (above) are brought into thecell within a vesicle formed from a section of the cell membrane.b.Examples:See Fig 3.30 – 3.32, page 86.Pinocytosis= cell drinking;the cell brings in liquid droplets which may containdissolved substances.Phagocytosis= cell eating;the cell engulfs and brings in a solid particle.1.Phagocytes (or macrophages) are very importantscavenger white blood cells in humans.2.They will bring inforeign particles, bacteria, etc.,a.that then fuse with alysosomein theircytoplasm to digest the foreign particles.Receptor-Mediated EndocytosisSee Fig 3.33, page 87.3-10
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Chapter 39 / Exercise 8
Biology
Martin/Solomon
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CHAPTER 3: CELLSIII.Movement Into and Out of the Cell (Membrane Transport)B.Physiologic (Active) Transport Processes (require energy expenditure)3.EXOCYTOSIS:See Fig 3.34, page 88.a.is the process by which cells transport secretory proteins out.Also see Fig 3.12, page 73.b.allows cells to get rid of debris by dumping it to theoutside (i.e. into the extracellular fluid).See Fig 3.32, page 86 and Fig 3.34, page 88.4.TRANSCYTOSIS:See Fig 3.35, page 89a.combines endocytosis with exocytosisb.particles travel across cell from apical to basal surfacesSee Table 3.4, page 89 for a Summary of Transport Processes and complete the following table.MEMBRANE TRANSPORT SUMMARY TABLE (Keyed at the end of the outline)TRANSPORTPROCESSIS ENERGYREQUIRED?[]GradientGENERALDESCRIPTIONEXAMPLEINHUMANSSIGNIFICANCESIMPLEDIFFUSIONFACILITATEDDIFFUSIONOSMOSISFILTRATIONACTIVETRANSPORTENDOCYTOSISEXOCYTOSISTRANSCYTOSISIV.THE CELL CYCLE(NORMAL CELL DIVISION)3-11
CHAPTER 3: CELLSThe life cycle of a cell is divided into two major portions that include interphase and amitotic phase.Remember that the process ofcell division is continuous.It is onlydivided into stages for convenience and to help you learn.See Fig 3.36, page 90, which illustrates the cell cycle as a continuum.A.INTERPHASE= cell growth and DNA replication;See Fig 3.37a, page 91.1.notconsidered part of mitosis.2.represents the majority of a cell's life and includes:a.cell growth andb.duplication of DNA prior to prophase;3.Interphase is divided into 3 parts:a.G1= rapid growth and replication of centrioles;b.S= growth and DNA replication; andc.G2= growth and final preps for cell division.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Smith,S
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Martin/Solomon
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