The Withdrawal of Vioxx•Vioxx was approved in 1999 in the US and Canada and was sold to over 80 million people around the world suffering from pain. •It was withdrawn in 2004 because it was linked to an increased risk (four-fold increase) of heart disease and stroke. oThe drug should have been taken off the market 7 years earlier, when there was already sufficient information about adverse cardiac events.Other Negative Effects of the Pharmaceutical Industry
•The pharmaceutical industry works with other industries producing ill health in other ways (pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers).•There are trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in streams, rivers, lakes, and tap water.Issues in Drug Regulation•The government has an important role in the regulation of the drug industry.•Most government regulations, however, are inadequate as a result of:oHalf the drugs on the Canadian market have never passed modern safety or effectiveness tests.oSubstandard drugs are being marketed and distributed overseas.oDrug companies have a monopoly on the information available to doctors.Medical Devices and Bioengineering•Companies that produce and sell various medical devices, such as artificial heart valves or pacemakers, are amongst the largest growth industries in the world.•Regulations controlling the industry are uneven.•The Health Products and Food Branch of Health Canada does not generally require adequate evidence concerning the potential harm or benefit of various devices.CHAPTER 15 GLOBALIZATION AND HEALTHCARE SYSTEMSIntroduction•The rates of under-five mortality are very high in the developing world, often from preventable diseases.•Kapoor (2012) argues that the celebritization of international aid is often self-serving, advancing consumerism, and depoliticizing the underlying causes of inequality and injustice throughout the world.Globalization, Medicalization, and Healthcare•Health-care systems around the world must be seen in the context of globalization. •Globalization is changing the relative importance of the sovereignty of nation-states and their governing structures. •The imperatives of profit-making can supersede the state-level regulations regarding equity, safety, and adequate health for people and communities. •Globalization is also linked to the spread of various diseases and possible influenza pandemics in the near future.•On the other hand, globalization supports the extension of knowledge and new technologies of health, prevention, and medical care through global organizations (e.g., WHO).•The Internet plays a significant role in the transmission of health-care information.•The World Health Organization (WHO) has assessed the state of health care globally based on extensive research about global health.