(the South).oLoyalists were less numerous in New England, where Presbyterianismand Congregationalism flourished. Loyalists were more numerous in thearistocratic areas such as Charleston, SC.IV.Typical Patriot oThe Patriots were generally the younger generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry.oThe Patriot militias constantly harassed small British detachments.oPatriots typically didn’t belong to the Anglican Church(Church of England) but were Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, orMethodist.V.There were also those known as “profiteers” who sold tothe highest bidder, selling to the British and ignoring starving,freezing soldiers (i.e. George Washington at Valley Forge).VIII. The Loyalist ExodusI.After the Declaration of Independence, Loyalists and Patriots weremore sharply divided, and Patriots often confiscated Loyalist propertyto resell it (an easy way to raise money).II.Some 50,000 Loyalists served the British in one way or another(fighting, spying, etc…), and it was an oddity that the Britsdidn’t make more use of them during the war.IX. General Washington at BayI.After the evacuation of Boston, the British focused on New York as a base for operations. oAn awe-inspiring fleet appeared off the coast in July 1776,consisting of some 500 ships and 35,000 men—the largest armedforce seen in America ever until the Civil War.
oWashington could only muster 18,000 ill-trained men to fight, and they were routed at the Battle of Long Island. Washington escaped to Manhattan Island, crossed the Hudson River toNew Jersey, reaching the Delaware River with taunting, fox-hunt callingBrits on his heels.oHe crossed the Delaware River at Trenton on a cold December 26,1776, and surprised and captured a thousand Hessians who were sleepingoff their Christmas Day celebration (drinking).oHe then left his campfires burning as a ruse, slipped away, andinflicted a sharp defeat on a smaller British detachment at Princeton,showing his military genius at its best.oIt was odd that Gen. William Howe, the British general,didn’t crush Washington when he was at the Delaware, but he wellremembered Bunker Hill, and was cautious.X. Burgoyne’s Blundering InvasionI.London officials adopted a complicated scheme for capturing thevital Hudson River valley in 1777, which, if successful, would severNew England from the rest of the colonies. The plan was suchthat… oGeneral Burgoyne would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada.oGeneral Howe’s troops in New York, if needed, could advance up the Hudson and meet Burgoyne in Albany.oA third and much smaller British force commanded by Col. Barry St.Ledger would come in from the west by way of Lake Ontario and theMohawk Valley.II.However, Benedict Arnold, after failure at Quebec, retreated slowlyalong the St. Lawrence back to Lake Champlain, where the British wouldhave to win control (of the lake) before proceeding. oThe Brits stopped to build a huge force, while Arnold assembled a tattered flotilla from whatever boats he could find.oHis “navy” was destroyed, but he had gained valuable
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