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mixed dentition is the period at which the primary teeth are shed and the permanent teeth erupt. This happens with each tooth resulting in both primary and permanent teeth being present at the same time. DENTAL ARCHES The teeth of the upper arch are called maxillary teeth (Fig. 7-11); their roots are embedded within the alveolar process of the maxilla. Those of the lower arch are called mandibular teeth; their roots are embedded within the alveolar process of the mandible. Each arch contains 16 teeth. The teeth in an arch are composed of 6 anteriors (cuspid to cuspid) and 10 posterior (all teeth distal to the cuspids). Figure 7-11.—Maxiallary and Mandibular Arches Showing Relationship of the Bones and Teeth DENTAL QUADRANTS Each dental arch is divided into a right and a left quadrant. The quadrants are formed by an imaginary line called the midline that passes between the central incisors in each arch and divides the arch in half (Fig. 7-12). There are four quadrants in the mouth (two per arch) that divide the mouth into four equal parts. Teeth are described as being located in one of the four quadrants: right maxillary quadrant, left maxillary quadrant, right mandibular quadrant, or the left mandibular quadrant. In a quadrant, there are 3 anterior and 5 posterior teeth. Figure 7-12.—Maxillary and Mandibular Arches Divided into Quadrants 7-10