ISS_225_Lec_14_Power_Among_Nations

Chief diplomat he extends and terminates diplomatic

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Chief Diplomat: He extends and terminates diplomatic recognition of foreign countries. He negotiates treaties with other countries (Senate approval). He negotiates executive agreements with heads of foreign governments (no Senate approval). He mediates between other feuding countries. (Carter – Middle East) Commander-in-Chief: Presidents command a huge military force and arsenal. Presidents can make short-term military commitments of troops abroad (sometimes turning into longer conflicts (Vietnam). Crisis Manager: A crisis is a sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event. Presidents and advisors are better equipped to manage crises. Usually minimal consultation with Congress. Example, Cuban Missile Crisis, Congress was told what was being done after the decision was made. 2. The Diplomats State Department (bureaucracy): The foreign policy arm of the United States, staffs U.S. embassies and consulates and represents the interests of Americans abroad. Secretary of State : The head of the State Department and traditionally the key advisor to the president on foreign policy matters. Special Assistant for National Security Affairs : Some presidents (Nixon - Kissinger, Carter - Bryznski) have relied more heavily on this individual 2
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Power Among Nations for foreign policy advice than on the Secretary of State. 3. National Security establishment consists of several agencies Department of Defense : military bureaucracy. The Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 increased inter-service cooperation and centralization of the military hierarchy. Secretary of Defense: The president's main civilian advisor on defense matters. Joint Chiefs of Staff : The commanding officers of each of the armed forces and key advisors to the president on military matters. National Security Council (NSC): Formed in 1947 to coordinate foreign and military policies. Composed of the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): product of the cold war. Created after World War II to coordinate American information and data-gathering intelligence abroad and to collect, analyze, and evaluate its own intelligence. Most activities are not controversial, gathering readily available sources. Espionage activities have been controversial including history of involvement in other nations' internal affairs, destabilizing the system, political assassinations. Since the end of the Cold War, CIA has been less active. Currently CIA is required to inform Congress of all covert activities. The CIA’s major function is to predict when an attack anywhere in the world is likely. They use spy satellites, listening devices, clandestine activities to look for troop movements, mobilization, unusual activities (especially at missile sites). A group of senior intelligence officers meet once a week at CIA headquarters to try to predict the likelihood of war. They examine a dozen or so hot spots and take odds on whether an attack is likely. If
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