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Wasted votes the other main concern over first past

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Wasted votes-The other main concern over First Past the Post systems is that, in certainsaferidings,people who do not support the party that is favoured are wasting their time showing up.-It increases the likelihood of strategic voting as well as decreasing voter turnout.-This is also true nationwide for supporters of smaller parties who do not have a chanceof getting a seat.Proportional Representation system-In contrast Proportional representative or PR systems strive to ensure or accuratelyrepresent proportionality.-However, in return there is no, or limited local representation.-John Stuart Mill was the first thinker to popularize PR.-There are two main forms of PR: Single transferable vote (STV), or List.-The electorate does not vote for individuals but for parties, The party system ranks allcandidates on list and the seats are awarded depending on the total percentage of seatsafter a certain threshold has been passed (there are formulas to award seats). Party listrankings are open (to the public) or closed.-PR is employed in Israel, Netherlands, and South Africa among others. It is the mostpopular system worldwide.
-It is often criticized for giving voice to smaller parties, and for producing coalitionsbetween parties, although it is regarded as being more democratic.Mixed System is best of both world?-Mixed member proportional or MMP is a hybrid between the two systems. It is seen as acompromise, or the best of both worlds. Dividing seats between constituencies and lists.Lists are used to balance in a simpler way than STV.-On election day voters vote both for the local candidate and another for the national list.The winner of each seat is determined by SMP. Think of it as a top up.-Here too lists can be open or closed, and there are usually thresholds in place.-New Zealand moved to MMP in the 1990s.-MMP is employed in Germany, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea.Citizens Assemblies in Canada-The 1990s ushered in a time of electoral debate in Canada. This was primarily due to aperceived democratic deficit.-British Columbia and Ontario held Citizen Assemblies.-In BC 80 men and 80 women randomly chosen from across the province got togetherover a number of weekends for close to year to learn about and debate electoral reform.-It was the first of its kind in the world. They recommended STV, and it was put to theelectorate in 2005, narrowly missing the 60% mark.-In 2006 Ontario also had an Assembly, but this time it recommended MMP, and it toowas put to a vote and defeated in 2007.It met with resounding failure, however only30% of the population were confident that they understood it.Referendums in other provinces-New Brunswick, P.E.I. and Quebec employed traditional commissions to investigatereform.-These commissions also recommended moving away from winner take all to MMPcorrective system.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Heather Bastedo
Tags
Voting system, Plurality voting system, Proportional representation, MMP

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