Mental act of treating two or more thing as the same

Info icon This preview shows pages 30–32. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Mental act of treating two or more thing as the same Keeps every experience from being brand new. Categories can be putting a name on things (BUGS!) Internal properties (decaf vs caffeinated coffee) Definitions Thinking Categorization Natural kinds: tigers, maples,  Artificial kinds: human concepts created by definitions  Syllogism Categories based on logic! All a are b, all b are c all a are c Deduction from premises to specific cases  Other forms (with some) All snow is cold. Some precipitation is snow. Some precipitation is cold. Inductive inference Mostly you earn premises through experience or hearsay and hope that your  experiences are releveant and your information is accurate.   Example: if according to you data, two german shepards bite your nose and  other things don’t, then your DEDUCTION is if there is a german shepard it will  bite your nose.  Rational thinking We solve problems. When measurements are sure, and we have time, we do this well.   Automatic mode System 1, lizard brain, some thing you do well.  Finding typicality. Effortful mode System 2, human brain.  Summing.  Illusions of thinking When we are put under pressure or with time shortage, there are  illusions to our rational thinking.  We are influenced in certain ways.  For  example, if you tell someone to memorize a certain number, then ask them  hoe many African nations are in the UN, they are a lot more likely to say a  number around their number.   Example: In a German court, they were giving a sentence to a guy  who had shoplifted.  They told a judge to roll the dice before reading the  case.  The judges who rolled a higher number gave a higher months of a 
Image of page 30

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
sentence.   Anchoring When we are not sure of something, we will use ANY amount of  crazy information that is given to you.  This is called  anchoring.  There is a  number in your head that you should adjust it but you don’t.   Why do we anchor? 1.  Priming (more likely to repeat things you just heard) 2.  Effort of adjustment (if you start with a number, it takes more  EFFORT to adjust.  We have to think in order to do it.  We don’t think enough  under conditions of uncertainty)  Framing A scientist is told that there is a disease, and there is a report that  you won’t like.  You can choose any of the plans.   1. if you do nothing 600 will die 2. save 200 for sure 3. 1/3 chance saving all, 2/3 chance everyone dies A scientist is told that there is a disease, and there is a report that  you won’t like.  You can choose any of the plans.  
Image of page 31
Image of page 32
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern