Organization: Discover that a dolphin is a water mammal not a fish Equilibrium: Things in water are fish and mammals
Midterm 1: Psychology child development Lecture notes and chapters 1, 2, 4.3, 5, and 8.1-8.2 2. Preoperational (2-7) 3. Concrete Operations (7-11) 4. Formal Operations (11+) Sensorimotor stage: - How did Piaget study infant intelligence? 1. Studied his own children 2. Longitudinal studies 3. Naturalistic observation 4. Experimental manipulation - BUT… 1. Sample size (small) 2. Genetic similarity (Piaget = father to the children being tested by himself) 3. Bias (parents judging how smart their children are) - Six substages: 1. Reflex activity (0-1m) “Mindless” exercising of reflexes Grasping reflex (grab finger) Sucking reflex (brush lips sucking) Underlie all further intellectual development (cognitive growth) 2. Primary circular reactions (1-4m) Replicating interesting body-related events Fingers end up in mouth (accident) like the feeling learn to suck on thumb (over time) Do it repeatedly 3. Secondary circular reactions (4-8m) Replicating interesting object-related events Making a duck quack (accident) figure out how to make it happen again make it quack every time you see it over and over again 4. Coordination of secondary schemes (8-12m) Intentional (planned) behaviour Means to and end tasks Separate schemes coming together to perform one single action 5. Tertiary circular reactions (12-18m) Re-create interesting events in new ways Hitting duck to make it quack, stomping on it, throwing it against a wall etc. Trial and error exploratory schemes 6. Symbolic problem solving (18-24 m) Schemes “go mental” no more trial and error - Accomplishments (sensorimotor): 1. Capstone accomplishments Beginnings of symbolic thought 2.Skills that reflect accomplishment?
1. Substages 1-2: no evidence of search Loses sight and interest when object isn’t seen 2. Substage 3: Limited search Depends on how hidden the object is Enough of it needs to be showing for the infant to be able to recognize the object 3. Substage 4: Good search Has almost mastered object permanence Still with errors A-not-B errors 4. Substage 5: Visible displacement No more A-not-B errors Can’t cope with invisible displacements 5. Substage 6: mastered object permanence October 26, 2017 Critiques: Piaget underestimates infants’ abilities (sensory stage) - Imitation: 1. Piaget felt that children could not imitate until stage 4 Meltzoff/Moore (1977): newborn’s (12-21 days old) and sat a research assistant in front of them Make 3 faces at the baby (film babies face)
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- Winter '14