this apparent contradiction. 2003 : A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in the organization of their genetic material. a) Discuss the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. b) Contrast the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Replication of DNA Transcription or translation Gene regulation Cell division 2004 : Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a) Explain how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. Identify ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? Describe how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. Describe either parthenogenesis or cloning and compare the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. 2005: The unit of genetic organization in all living organisms is the chromosome. (a) Describe the structure and function of the parts of a eukaryotic chromosome. You may wish to include a diagram as part of your description. (b) Describe the adaptive (or evolutionary) significance of organizing genes into chromosomes. (c) How does the function and structure of the chromosome differ in prokaryotes?
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