tury the aim was to increase international com mitments to technology transfer

Tury the aim was to increase international com

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tury; the aim was to increase international com- mitments to technology transfer rather than to structure institutional arrangements that fit local circumstances in order to ensure the absorption, contextualization, and deployment of technology (Sampatha & Roffe, 2012; Lema & Lema, 2012). Notwithstanding the limited economic and human development benefits achieved through technology transfer in conventional sectors, the initial struc-turing of discussions within the UNFCCC took a traditional, limited viewpoint of technology trans-fer. This led to efforts to stimulate climate-friendly technology transfer limited to hardware and financ-ing assistance, a strategy widely deemed unsuccess-ful (Ockwell & Mallett, 2013). However, there has been an evolution in this approach: recognition of the centrality of GHG -reduction technology deployment in developing countries addresses the public good in terms of climate change challenge, along with the recognition of the limitations of the traditional position on technology transfer. There is a growing consensus that international action to harness technology for climate change mitigation and general development in the South must go beyond a debate of technology transfer to focus instead on innovation cooperation, i.e., joint action to accelerate the development, adaptation, and deployment of suitable technologies (Sagar, Bremner & Grubb, 2009). This innovation cum cooperation needs to extend beyond the techno- logical aspect to encompass other facets of the in- novation system that support the deployment of technology. A better understanding of the role of local innovation in developing countries to achieve and sustain low-carbon development is also needed (Ockwell et al., 2009). Despite progress in the approach and institu- tional framework for technology transfer, several issues remain. Th e issue of technology transfer is deeply integrated with the trade- and IPR-related issues discussed earlier in this chapter, and a suc- cessful technology transfer mechanism would need to consider these complex issues as well. While new technology mechanisms such as the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and Climate Tech-nology Centre and Network (CTCN) have been established, any evaluation of results will have to await their implementation (Box 11). 82 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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5. Moving forward: Policy dimensions Low-carbon development is only one among many objectives pursued by governments and donor or- ganisations in the developing world. Nevertheless, the low-carbon imperative has become an integral element of the development agenda. A large num- ber of development organisations have included low-carbon development in their policies and port- folios of programmes and projects. While many of these organisations have begun to implement in- novation programmes, few have started to bring innovation and low-carbon development together in a systemic perspective. This is what the current report has sought to do. This implies that develop- ment policy should seek to combine the objectives of human development and environmental sustain-
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