Sex hormones: small quantities of male and female hormones produced B. Adrenal cortex dysfunction 1. Hypofunction - Addison's disease (swelling, tissue water loss, diarrhea, low blood sugar, low glycogen content within cells, muscle weakness, GI disturbances, vomiting, depressed sexual function) 2. Hyperfunction - Cushing's disease (fat deposition in facial area and upper back, muscle wasting, high blood glucose level) C. Adrenal Medulla 1. Epinephrine(adrenalin) a. Constriction of arterioles except in heart and skeletal muscle b. increase rate/force of heart beat and rise in systolic pressure c. diabetes bronchiolus - relaxes smooth muscle d. increases blood sugar and glycogen breakdown in liver causing hyperglycemia
2. Associated with super feats of strength, epinephrine compliments the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system 3. Clinically: bronchial asthma, cardiac failure, constricts blood vessels, causes blood to clot faster 4. Norepinephrine- increases systolic and diastolic pressure, constriction of arterioles in skeletal and heart muscle, relaxes smooth muscle of the digestive tract, and causes the spleen to contract releasing erythrocytes to the C.V.S. D. Hyperfunction of adrenal medulla 1. Hypertension, high blood pressure IX. Thyroid A. Location and description 1. immediately below larynx, 2 lobes connected by isthmus 2. separated into irregular lobes by septa B. Microstructure - follicles contain a colloid of glycoproteins and thyroglobulin+iodine complex C. Hormones 1. Thyroxin(95%) 2. Thriiodothyrone(5%) 3. ThyrocalcitoninD. Control wide range of metabolic activities 1. regulate metabolic and oxidative rates in cells of body 2. increase glucose absorption by small intestine 3. increase rate glucose utilized by cells 4. liver increases conversion glycogen to glucose 5. liver increases gluconeogenesis 6. increases protein synthesis in cells 7. influences physical and mental development in children 8. stimulates mental process in adults E. Simple goiter (colloid goiter) 1. not enough iodine in diet 2. thyroid - enlarges, cell numbers and sizes increase 3. enough cells to trap enough iodine that hypothyroidism does not occur F. Hyperthyroidism 1. enlargement, but not goiter proportions 2. Grave's disease or exopthalomic goiter 3. Symptoms: bug eyes, epithelial surface irritated, infected, rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), rapid respiration, high BMR, appetite tremendous, high body temperature, sweating G.