Heavily intertwined with legal means violence was

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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 30
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
Expert Verified
Heavily intertwined with legal means Violence was often used to enforce the new laws Legal means Laws were made to permit pushing peasants off the land More laws were then implemented to ensure that people had no option but to sell their labour Giving to the poor was made a crime, state was now meant to take care of the poor People who didn’t have jobs were criminalized Ideological means Convincing others that capitalism is good for everyone, when in reality it only works in the benefit of some Usually comes from scholars or politicians pushing this ideological agenda Vagabonds: homeless, unemployed, beggar Children were taken from them, sold into slavery Were violently punished by the state for begging Two functions of unemployment Those who were unemployed or disabled served as disciplining mechanisms, the employed would see them and be thankful for their employment Poor people were able to compete for jobs and work for less, this kept fees down for capitalist owners Poor relief: a system of welfare created by the state meant to look after the poor; had two purposes The poor would be given food and shelter in exchange for having to do horrific work; free labour Ensured that the poor didn’t get too poor, this way they still had something to lose so they couldn’t revolt
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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 10 / Exercise 30
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
Expert Verified
Citizenship in a capitalist society is to consume or produce Social class under capitalism Class: group of people who have the same relationship to the means of production You either employ people and own the means of production, you owns the means of production and work on them yourself, or you don’t own any means of production and sell your labour to those who do There are two principal classes under capitalism Capitalists/bourgeoisie: owners of the means of production, appropriate products produced by the workers Workers/proletariat: sell their labour in order to survive, don’t own means of production Capital accumulation: a process through which capital expands through the production and appropriation of surplus value A means of production (e.g. a machine) can only produce when labour comes into contact with it Capital is a social relation and not just a sum of money due to the fact that it cannot be produced without being in contact with labourers Exploitation: extraction of the surplus value from the worker by the owner of the means of production, has four elements Necessary labour: the amount of work a labourer must do in order to make the necessary wages to meet their basic needs Surplus labour: anything work done that isn’t necessary labour Surplus value: results of the surplus labour Rate of exploitation: Colonialism: the economic, political, and military domination by one nation over another territory and its people Economically driven Made possible through genocide, war, and enslavement among other kinds of violence Institutionalized slavery and cemented racism as an ideology and practice Colonial expansion: the process by which a new and international division of

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